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Step-by-Step Guide for Adding a Stack, Expanding Control Lines, and Building an Assembler

After the positive response to my first tutorial on expanding the RAM, I thought I'd continue the fun by expanding the capabilities of Ben's 8-bit CPU even further. That said, you'll need to have done the work in the previous post to be able to do this. You can get a sense for what we'll do in this Imgur gallery.
In this tutorial, we'll balance software and hardware improvements to make this a pretty capable machine:

Parts List

To only update the hardware, you'll need:
If you want to update the toolchain, you'll need:
  1. Arduino Mega 2560 (Amazon) to create the programmer.
  2. Ribbon Jumper Cables (Amazon) to connect the Arduino to the breadboard.
  3. TL866 II Plus EEPROM Programmer (Amazon) to program the ROM.
Bonus Clock Improvement: One additional thing I did is replace the 74LS04 inverter in Ben's clock circuit with a 74LS14 inverting Schmitt trigger (datasheet, Jameco). The pinouts are identical! Just drop it in, wire the existing lines, and then run the clock output through it twice (since it's inverting) to get a squeaky clean clock signal. Useful if you want to go even faster with the CPU.

Step 1: Program with an Arduino and Assembler (Image 1, Image 2)

There's a certain delight in the physical programming of a computer with switches. This is how Bill Gates and Paul Allen famously programmed the Altair 8800 and started Microsoft. But at some point, the hardware becomes limited by how effectively you can input the software. After upgrading the RAM, I quickly felt constrained by how long it took to program everything.
You can continue to program the computer physically if you want and even after upgrading that option is still available, so this step is optional. There's probably many ways to approach the programming, but this way felt simple and in the spirit of the build. We'll use an Arduino Mega 2560, like the one in Ben's 6502 build, to program the RAM. We'll start with a homemade assembler then switch to something more robust.
Preparing the Physical Interface
The first thing to do is prepare the CPU to be programmed by the Arduino. We already did the hard work on this in the RAM upgrade tutorial by using the bus to write to the RAM and disconnecting the control ROM while in program mode. Now we just need to route the appropriate lines to a convenient spot on the board to plug the Arduino into.
  1. This is optional, but I rewired all the DIP switches to have ground on one side, rather than alternating sides like Ben's build. This just makes it easier to route wires.
  2. Wire the 8 address lines from the DIP switch, connecting the side opposite to ground (the one going to the chips) to a convenient point on the board. I put them on the far left, next to the address LEDs and above the write button circuit.
  3. Wire the 8 data lines from the DIP switch, connecting the side opposite to ground (the one going to the chips) directly below the address lines. Make sure they're separated by the gutter so they're not connected.
  4. Wire a line from the write button to your input area. You want to connect the side of the button that's not connected to ground (the one going to the chip).
So now you have one convenient spot with 8 address lines, 8 data lines, and a write line. If you want to get fancy, you can wire them into some kind of connector, but I found that ribbon jumper cables work nicely and keep things tidy.
The way we'll program the RAM is to enter program mode and set all the DIP switches to the high position (e.g., 11111111). Since the switches are upside-down, this means they'll all be disconnected and not driving to ground. The address and write lines will simply be floating and the data lines will be weakly pulled up by 1k resistors. Either way, the Arduino can now drive the signals going into the chips using its outputs.
Creating the Arduino Programmer
Now that we can interface with an Arduino, we need to write some software. If you follow Ben's 6502 video, you'll have all the knowledge you need to get this working. If you want some hints and code, see below (source code):
  1. Create arrays for your data and address lines. For example: const char ADDRESS_LINES[] = {39, 41, 43, 45, 47, 49, 51, 53};. Create your write line with #define RAM_WRITE 3.
  2. Create functions to enable and disable your address and data lines. You want to enable them before writing. Make sure to disable them afterward so that you can still manually program using DIP switches without disconnecting the Arduino. The code looks like this (just change INPUT to OUTPUT accordingly): for(int n = 0; n < 8; n += 1) { pinMode(ADDRESS_LINES[n], OUTPUT); }
  3. Create a function to write to an address. It'll look like void writeData(byte writeAddress, byte writeData) and basically use two loops, one for address and one for data, followed by toggling the write.
  4. Create a char array that contains your program and data. You can use #define to create opcodes like #define LDA 0x01.
  5. In your main function, loop through the program array and send it through writeData.
With this setup, you can now load multi-line programs in a fraction of a second! This can really come in handy with debugging by stress testing your CPU with software. Make sure to test your setup with existing programs you know run reliably. Now that you have your basic setup working, you can add 8 additional lines to read the bus and expand the program to let you read memory locations or even monitor the running of your CPU.
Making an Assembler
The above will serve us well but it's missing a key feature: labels. Labels are invaluable in assembly because they're so versatile. Jumps, subroutines, variables all use labels. The problem is that labels require parsing. Parsing is a fun project on the road to a compiler but not something I wanted to delve into right now--if you're interested, you can learn about Flex and Bison. Instead, I found a custom assembler that lets you define your CPU's instruction set and it'll do everything else for you. Let's get it setup:
  1. If you're on Windows, you can use the pre-built binaries. Otherwise, you'll need to install Rust and compile via cargo build.
  2. Create a file called 8bit.cpu and define your CPU instructions (source code). For example, LDA would be lda {address} -> 0x01 @ address[7:0]. What's cool is you can also now create the instruction's immediate variant instead of having to call it LDI: lda #{value} -> 0x05 @ value[7:0].
  3. You can now write assembly by adding #include "8bit.cpu" to the top of your code. There's a lot of neat features so make sure to read the documentation!
  4. Once you've written some assembly, you can generate the machine code using ./customasm yourprogram.s -f hexc -p. This prints out a char array just like our Arduino program used!
  5. Copy the char array into your Arduino program and send it to your CPU.
At this stage, you can start creating some pretty complex programs with ease. I would definitely play around with writing some larger programs. I actually found a bug in my hardware that was hidden for a while because my programs were never very complex!

Step 2: Expand the Control Lines (Image)

Before we can expand the CPU any further, we have to address the fact we're running out of control lines. An easy way to do this is to add a 3rd 28C16 ROM and be on your way. If you want something a little more involved but satisfying, read on.
Right now the control lines are one hot encoded. This means that if you have 4 lines, you can encode 4 states. But we know that a 4-bit binary number can encode 16 states. We'll use this principle via 74LS138 decoders, just like Ben used for the step counter.
Choosing the Control Line Combinations
Everything comes with trade-offs. In the case of combining control lines, it means the two control lines we choose to combine can never be activated at the same time. We can ensure this by encoding all the inputs together in the first 74LS138 and all the outputs together in a second 74LS138. We'll keep the remaining control lines directly connected.
Rewiring the Control Lines
If your build is anything like mine, the control lines are a bit of a mess. You'll need to be careful when rewiring to ensure it all comes back together correctly. Let's get to it:
  1. Place the two 74LS138 decoders on the far right side of the breadboard with the ROMs. Connect them to power and ground.
  2. You'll likely run out of inverters, so place a 74LS04 on the breadboard above your decoders. Connect it to power and ground.
  3. Carefully take your inputs (MI, RI, II, AI, BI, J) and wire them to the outputs of the left 74LS138. Do not wire anything to O0 because that's activated by 000 which won't work for us!
  4. Carefully take your outputs (RO, CO, AO, EO) and wire them to the outputs of the right 74LS138. Remember, do not wire anything to O0!
  5. Now, the 74LS138 outputs are active low, but the ROM outputs were active high. This means you need to swap the wiring on all your existing 74LS04 inverters for the LEDs and control lines to work. Make sure you track which control lines are supposed to be active high vs. active low!
  6. Wire E3 to power and E2 to ground. Connect the E1 on both 138s together, then connect it to the same line as OE on your ROMs. This will ensure that the outputs are disabled when you're in program mode. You can actually take off the 1k pull-up resistors from the previous tutorial at this stage, because the 138s actively drive the lines going to the 74LS04 inverters rather than floating like the ROMs.
At this point, you really need to ensure that the massive rewiring job was successful. Connect 3 jumper wires to A0-A2 and test all the combinations manually. Make sure the correct LED lights up and check with a multimeteoscilloscope that you're getting the right signal at each chip. Catching mistakes at this point will save you a lot of headaches! Now that everything is working, let's finish up:
  1. Connect A0-A2 of the left 74LS138 to the left ROM's A0-A2.
  2. Connect A0-A2 of the right 74LS138 to the right ROM's A0-A2.
  3. Distribute the rest of the control signals across the two ROMs.
Changing the ROM Code
This part is easy. We just need to update all of our #define with the new addresses and program the ROMs again. For clarity that we're not using one-hot encoding anymore, I recommend using hex instead of binary. So instead of #define MI 0b0000000100000000, we can use #define MI 0x0100, #define RI 0x0200, and so on.
Testing
Expanding the control lines required physically rewiring a lot of critical stuff, so small mistakes can creep up and make mysterious errors down the road. Write a program that activates each control line at least once and make sure it works properly! With your assembler and Arduino programmer, this should be trivial.
Bonus: Adding B Register Output
With the additional control lines, don't forget you can now add a BO signal easily which lets you fully use the B register.

Step 3: Add a Stack (Image 1, Image 2)

Adding a stack significantly expands the capability of the CPU. It enables subroutines, recursion, and handling interrupts (with some additional logic). We'll create our stack with an 8-bit stack pointer hard-coded from $0100 to $01FF, just like the 6502.
Wiring up the Stack Pointer
A stack pointer is conceptually similar to a program counter. It stores an address, you can read it and write to it, and it increments. The only difference between a stack pointer and a program counter is that the stack pointer must also decrement. To create our stack pointer, we'll use two 74LS193 4-bit up/down binary counters:
  1. Place a 74LS00 NAND gate, 74LS245 transceiver, and two 74LS193 counters in a row next to your output register. Wire up power and ground.
  2. Wire the the Carry output of the right 193 to the Count Up input of the left 193. Do the same for the Borrow output and Count Down input.
  3. Connect the Clear input between the two 193s and with an active high reset line. The B register has one you can use on its 74LS173s.
  4. Connect the Load input between the two 193s and to a new active low control line called SI on your 74LS138 decoder.
  5. Connect the QA-QD outputs of the lower counter to A8-A5 and the upper counter to A4-A1. Pay special attention because the output are in a weird order (BACD) and you want to make sure the lower A is connected to A8 and the upper A is connected to A4.
  6. Connect the A-D inputs of the lower counter to B8-B5 and the upper counter to B4-B1. Again, the inputs are in a weird order and on both sides of the chip so pay special attention.
  7. Connect the B1-B8 outputs of the 74LS245 transceiver to the bus.
  8. On the 74LS245 transceiver, connect DIR to power (high) and connect OE to a new active low control line called SO on your 74LS138 decoder.
  9. Add 8 LEDs and resistors to the lower part of the 74LS245 transceiver (A1-A8) so you can see what's going on with the stack pointer.
Enabling Increment & Decrement
We've now connected everything but the Count Up and Count Down inputs. The way the 74LS193 works is that if nothing is counting, both inputs are high. If you want to increment, you keep Count Down high and pulse Count Up. To decrement, you do the opposite. We'll use a 74LS00 NAND gate for this:
  1. Take the clock from the 74LS08 AND gate and make it an input into two different NAND gates on the 74LS00.
  2. Take the output from one NAND gate and wire it to the Count Up input on the lower 74LS193 counter. Take the other output and wire it to the Count Down input.
  3. Wire up a new active high control line called SP from your ROM to the NAND gate going into Count Up.
  4. Wire up a new active high control line called SM from your ROM to the NAND gate going into Count Down.
At this point, everything should be working. Your counter should be able to reset, input a value, output a value, and increment/decrement. But the issue is it'll be writing to $0000 to $00FF in the RAM! Let's fix that.
Accessing Higher Memory Addresses
We need the stack to be in a different place in memory than our regular program. The problem is, we only have an 8-bit bus, so how do we tell the RAM we want a higher address? We'll use a special control line to do this:
  1. Wire up an active high line called SA from the 28C16 ROM to A8 on the Cypress CY7C199 RAM.
  2. Add an LED and resistor so you can see when the stack is active.
That's it! Now, whenever we need the stack we can use a combination of the control line and stack pointer to access $0100 to $01FF.
Updating the Instruction Set
All that's left now is to create some instructions that utilize the stack. We'll need to settle some conventions before we begin:
If you want to add a little personal flair to your design, you can change the convention fairly easily. Let's implement push and pop (source code):
  1. Define all your new control lines, such as #define SI 0x0700 and #define SO 0x0005.
  2. Create two new instructions: PSH (1011) and POP (1100).
  3. PSH starts the same as any other for the first two steps: MI|CO and RO|II|CE. The next step is to put the contents of the stack pointer into the address register via MI|SO|SA. Recall that SA is the special control line that tells the memory to access the $01XX bank rather than $00XX.
  4. We then take the contents of AO and write it into the RAM. We can also increment the stack pointer at this stage. All of this is done via: AO|RI|SP|SA, followed by TR.
  5. POP is pretty similar. Start off with MI|CO and RO|II|CE. We then need to take a cycle and decrement the stack pointer with SM. Like with PSH, we then set the address register with MI|SO|SA.
  6. We now just need to output the RAM into our A register with RO|AI|SA and then end the instruction with TR.
  7. Updating the assembler is easy since neither instruction has operands. For example, push is just psh -> 0x0B.
And that's it! Write some programs that take advantage of your new 256 byte stack to make sure everything works as expected.

Step 4: Add Subroutine Instructions (Image)

The last step to complete our stack is to add subroutine instructions. This allows us to write complex programs and paves the way for things like interrupt handling.
Subroutines are like a blend of push/pop instructions and a jump. Basically, when you want to call a subroutine, you save your spot in the program by pushing the program counter onto the stack, then jumping to the subroutine's location in memory. When you're done with the subroutine, you simply pop the program counter value from the stack and jump back into it.
We'll follow 6502 conventions and only save and restore the program counter for subroutines. Other CPUs may choose to save more state, but it's generally left up to the programmer to ensure they're not wiping out states in their subroutines (e.g., push the A register at the start of your subroutine if you're messing with it and restore it before you leave).
Adding an Extra Opcode Line
I've started running low on opcodes at this point. Luckily, we still have two free address lines we can use. To enable 5-bit opcodes, simply wire up the 4Q output of your upper 74LS173 register to A7 of your 28C16 ROM (this assumes your opcodes are at A3-A6).
Updating the ROM Writer
At this point, you simply need to update the Arduino writer to support 32 instructions vs. the current 16. So, for example, UCODE_TEMPLATE[16][8] becomes UCODE_TEMPLATE[32][8] and you fill in the 16 new array elements with nop. The problem is that the Arduino only has so much memory and with the way Ben's code is written to support conditional jumps, it starts to get tight.
I bet the code can be re-written to handle this, but I had a TL866II Plus EEPROM programmer handy from the 6502 build and I felt it would be easier to start using that instead. Converting to a regular C program is really simple (source code):
  1. Copy all the #define, global const arrays (don't forget to expand them from 16 to 32), and void initUCode(). Add #include and #include to the top.
  2. In your traditional int main (void) C function, after initializing with initUCode(), make two arrays: char ucode_upper[2048] and char ucode_lower[2048].
  3. Take your existing loop code that loops through all addresses: for (int address = 0; address < 2048; address++).
  4. Modify instruction to be 5-bit with int instruction = (address & 0b00011111000) >> 3;.
  5. When writing, just write to the arrays like so: ucode_lower[address] = ucode[flags][instruction][step]; and ucode_upper[address] = ucode[flags][instruction][step] >> 8;.
  6. Open a new file with FILE *f = fopen("rom_upper.hex", "wb");, write to it with fwrite(ucode_upper, sizeof(char), sizeof(ucode_upper), f); and close it with fclose(f);. Repeat this with the lower ROM too.
  7. Compile your code using gcc (you can use any C compiler), like so: gcc -Wall makerom.c -o makerom.
Running your program will spit out two binary files with the full contents of each ROM. Writing the file via the TL866II Plus requires minipro and the following command: minipro -p CAT28C16A -w rom_upper.hex.
Adding Subroutine Instructions
At this point, I cleaned up my instruction set layout a bit. I made psh and pop 1000 and 1001, respectively. I then created two new instructions: jsr and rts. These allow us to jump to a subroutine and returns from a subroutine. They're relatively simple:
  1. For jsr, the first three steps are the same as psh: MI|CO, RO|II|CE, MI|SO|SA.
  2. On the next step, instead of AO we use CO to save the program counter to the stack: CO|RI|SP|SA.
  3. We then essentially read the 2nd byte to do a jump and terminate: MI|CO, RO|J.
  4. For rts, the first four steps are the same as pop: MI|CO, RO|II|CE, SM, MI|SO|SA.
  5. On the next step, instead of AI we use J to load the program counter with the contents in stack: RO|J|SA.
  6. We're not done! If we just left this as-is, we'd jump to the 2nd byte of jsr which is not an opcode, but a memory address. All hell would break loose! We need to add a CE step to increment the program counter and then terminate.
Once you update the ROM, you should have fully functioning subroutines with 5-bit opcodes. One great way to test them is to create a recursive program to calculate something--just don't go too deep or you'll end up with a stack overflow!

Conclusion

And that's it! Another successful upgrade of your 8-bit CPU. You now have a very capable machine and toolchain. At this point I would have a bunch of fun with the software aspects. In terms of hardware, there's a number of ways to go from here:
  1. Interrupts. Interrupts are just special subroutines triggered by an external line. You can make one similar to how Ben did conditional jumps. The only added complexity is the need to load/save the flags register since an interrupt can happen at any time and you don't want to destroy the state. Given this would take more than 8 steps, you'd also need to add another line for the step counter (see below).
  2. ROM expansion. At this point, address lines on the ROM are getting tight which limits any expansion possibilities. With the new approach to ROM programming, it's trivial to switch out the 28C16 for the 28C256 that Ben uses in the 6502. These give you 4 additional address lines for flags/interrupts, opcodes, and steps.
  3. LCD output. At this point, adding a 16x2 character LCD like Ben uses in the 6502 is very possible.
  4. Segment/bank register. It's essentially a 2nd memory address register that lets you access 256-byte segments/banks of RAM using bank switching. This lets you take full advantage of the 32K of RAM in the Cypress chip.
  5. Fast increment instructions. Add these to registers by replacing 74LS173s with 74LS193s, allowing you to more quickly increment without going through the ALU. This is used to speed up loops and array operations.
submitted by MironV to beneater [link] [comments]

what is this i just downloaded (youtube code?)

so this is kinda a wierd story. I was planning to restart my computer. (cant remember why) I spend most of my time watching youtube videos so i had alot of tabs open. So i was watching the videos then deleting the tab but not opening new tabs. So i was down 2 i think 1 it was a pretty long video so i tried to open a youtube home page tab just to look while i listened to the video. And this is a short exerp of what i got.





YouTube











submitted by inhuman7773 to techsupport [link] [comments]

MAME 0.219

MAME 0.219

MAME 0.219 arrives today, just in time for the end of February! This month we’ve got another piece of Nintendo Game & Watch history – Pinball – as well as a quite a few TV games, including Dream Life Superstar, Designer’s World, Jenna Jameson’s Strip Poker, and Champiyon Pinball. The previously-added Care Bears and Piglet’s Special Day TV games are now working, as well as the big-endian version of the MIPS Magnum R4000. As always, the TV games vary enormously in quality, from enjoyable titles, to low-effort games based on licensed intellectual properties, to horrible bootlegs using blatantly copied assets. If music/rhythm misery is your thing, there’s even a particularly bad dance mat game in there.
On the arcade side, there are fixes for a minor but long-standing graphical issue in Capcom’s genre-defining 1942, and also a fairly significant graphical regression in Seibu Kaihatsu’s Raiden Fighters. Speaking of Seibu Kaihatsu, our very own Angelo Salese significantly improved the experience in Good E-Jan, and speaking of graphics fixes, cam900 fixed some corner cases in Data East’s innovative, but little-known, shoot-’em-up Boogie Wings. Software list additions include the Commodore 64 INPUT 64 collection (courtesy of FakeShemp) and the Spanish ZX Spectrum Load’N’Run collection (added by ICEknight). New preliminary CPU cores and disassemblers include IBM ROMP, the NEC 78K family, Samsung KS0164 and SSD Corp’s Xavix 2.
As always, you can get the source and 64-bit Windows binary packages from the download page.

MAME Testers Bugs Fixed

New working machines

New working clones

Machines promoted to working

Clones promoted to working

New machines marked as NOT_WORKING

New clones marked as NOT_WORKING

New working software list additions

Software list items promoted to working

New NOT_WORKING software list additions

Source Changes

submitted by cuavas to emulation [link] [comments]

Sex & The Failed Absolute — Reading Group "Introduction"

The Introduction To Sex & The Failed Absolute:
Primer, Introduction, Theorem 1 (part 1), Theorem 1 (Part 2), Corollary 1, Scholium 1.1/2/3, Theorem II (Part 1), Theorem II (Part 2), Theorem II (Parts 3 & 4), Corollary 2, Scholium 2.1/2/3/4, Judgment Derp, Theorem III (Part’s 1,2,3), Theorem III (Part’s 4,5,6), Corollary 3, Scholium 3, Theorem IV, Corollary 4:, Scholium 4, End of Reading Groups Synopsis
This post/reading group is really for those who have read the chapters already, or will do so as we go along. If you haven't, here it is, please try and read it before asking questions.
This is a long post (almost as long as the actual intro), but I wanted to ‘re-write’ the introduction of the book to see if I could make it clearer for less experienced readers, using my own simplified readings and additions as examples, so feel free to critique and add your own.
Žižek goes at it from the start: we have to think about sex, which he posits is “perhaps the most radical act of them all.”
His central criticism, and which he returns to at the end of the intro is:
1) When religion or any other belief in the absolute (anything that is ‘greater’ than our own private individual needs) fails, a profound sense of disconnection (alienation) follows and so the world goes for hedonism as an attempt to ‘reconnect’ through enjoyment. This goes with his often repeated criticism of the modern superego injunction to “Enjoy!”, and we feel this everyday: “Enjoy your family”, “Enjoy your time off”, “Enjoy reddit”, and a particular gripe of his “Don’t hold back on your feelings, get rid of your prohibitions and express how you really feel regardless of considerations for the civility of human relationships!” Arguably, even the injunction to “enjoy philosophy” is there, but philosophy is hard work and people don’t want to work, they want simple explanations and user friendly memes (Ouch – sorry, couldn’t resist it). Watch this video on creating a space for permission not to enjoy and note that he is not saying we must not enjoy, but we need to be able to not enjoy in important areas of life. This begs the question “What would it look like when religion is successful?” — permission not to enjoy? Active productivity towards a universal aim instead of seeking your own hedonistic/narcissistic pleasure?
This all has everything to do with sexuality, raised to the level of a new absolute — enjoy your eroticised identity of who you “really are” and find you perfect partner who will “complete” you so you can feel good, (find your reddit identity so other’s will love/admire you). “If only we could allow each other to be who we “really are”, all the problems in the world will be solved”. Žižek’s response is no!, you must censor yourself for the sake of human relationships. Why connect it with sexuality? Because, in my very simplistic reading, if we go with evolution, the whole shebang is geared towards the reproduction of the species. That’s teleological I know, so it would be more accurate to say “sex was the answer to the problem of death”. However, we represent a break from nature (arguably we are a symptom of a break in nature itself), in that, unlike animals, we have no instincts, and so all the energy that was geared towards reproduction doesn’t know what its supposed to do (“The falcon cannot hear the falconer” etc.). So sex/enjoyment (as an ideological category), without a ‘higher purpose’ (God etc.), becomes its own tautological end – enjoy for the sake of enjoyment.
2) “Because of the inconsistent nature of sexuality, its elevation into the new Absolute necessarily fails.” In example he isolates the problem of defining the universal category of “Woman” (not individual women). Philosophically it can’t be solved through new post-patriarchal definition (basically, because the position of the non-All will always escape an “All” encompassing identity), nor through the elevation of woman into an entity which resists symbolization, as this invites mythos and mysticism —think about how, without sexual instincts, sexualised energy without direction is free to roam where it likes, guided by the matrix of culture and capitalism — look at these Images and tell me you don’t see sex redirected towards ice-cream. In other words, the mystery of religious ecstasy is now the mystery consumerist ecstasy.
However, and this is the crux of the entire book and should be clear from the offset, THE WHOLE THING FAILS ON ALL FRONTS: Yin/Yang, “masculine/feminine principles”, “Oneness” of/with Being, “Touching the face of God” in the female orgasm, and this very failure is constitutive of human sexuality — without it, there would be no sexuality — and therefore the entire edifice of culture is built on and around this antagonism.
Most of the book is built on various attempts to formalise this reflexive movement – how the “Oneness” of the absolute turns back on itself, recoils etc. The key figures that represents this reflexivity are unorientable surfaces on which the up/down, left/right, forward/backwards of standard cartesian space goes arse over tit (notice especially that depth is a function of Cartesian space). Cartesian space is a transcendental category of perception (it is the precondition for ‘reality’ as it appears to us and serves as a big Other). If you stand on a Möbius strip, you will perceive two surfaces (Finite/Infinite, Quality/Quantity, Good/Bad, Being/Thought, Conscious/Unconscious, Subject/Object, Male/Female, Epistemology/Ontology), each as a ‘mirror’ of the other, but in experiential life, you can never stand back in an “objective” position to see how it is all “the same”, but not the same as in One, but as in an impossibility of totality (a Cartesian perspective) and the ability to orientate yourself towards it in any meaningful way at all. But you can represent (re-present) the nature of the antagonism itself using these unorientable surfaces which render the continuous passage of a concept into its opposite (e.g. the subject passes to the object via the inscription of the objet a — a kind of informed version of Fichte’s identity of subject and object).
The naïve notion of an “eternal struggle of opposites” cuts the Möbius strip and flattens it out creating the notion of an end point, and this marks much of dialectical materialism (and philosophy and spirituality for two thousand years). Think of the crude thesis, antithesis, and synthesis as yet another attempt at a ‘final resolution’ between ‘opposites’ i.e. the absolute as a final “One” that resolves this tension. He does lay out Stalin’s dialectical materialism as a new version of general ontology, which is different form the simple reading I gave above (see my comment below that outlines it), but dialectical materialism as Žižek defines it, is concerned with “such a convoluted space, and that it is this convolution, this self-relating circular movement of falling-back-into-oneself,”, in other words, repetition without final resolution, only historically contingent resolution until the conditions shift once again, e.g. each era develops a new ideological “universal” as a master signifier (“Evolution”, ”Scientism”, “Capitalism”, “Democracy” etc.) and declares it as the end of history, until everyone wakes up in the morning with a hangover wondering why the night before went so wrong.
He is careful to point out the negative history of the term DM, and then briefly dissociates this version from it, calling on the majority of science already for whom “reality is a dynamic process permanently in motion, a process in the course of which gradual contingent change culminates in sudden reversals and explosions of something new, etc.” and I think it is true, that the very best scientists stay at the experimental level, avoiding final conclusions and dubious notions of truth (e.g. Richard Feynman was big on accusing science of making unwarranted claims based on effectively master signifiers – “energy” for instance, as explaining everything when no one can say what energy actually is. Today’s version might be “information”).
To exemplify the difference further, he resurrects one of my favourites from way back in The Parallax View. In brief, if you close one eye, put your finger in front of your face and focus on it, then alternate between closing one eye, then the other back and forth, the relative position of the background shifts. Conventional scientism and DM1 thinks of the background as the truth, and all we have to do is remove the finger and open both eyes. DM2 says that the finger is inscribed into the object. Think of the finger as the (hidden) void of the subject transposed into the objet a, every time it shifts, so does the object in the background, and the two are literally (as in the letter of the real) inseparable. Any notion of the way things “actually are” disintegrates. But this also happens with the self-identity of the object — we desire it to be self-identical. I may not desire a watch lets say, but I desire it to be a distinct singular self-identical ‘thing’, but by naming it a watch, I have already inscribed into it one particular function as a unary trait. There is no consistent ‘watch’ in the real (in extremis, if you took the perspective of a neutrino, there are no ‘things’ at all).
To say that the object and the subject are inherently mediated is effectively to say they are mutually constitutive in the sense that one inevitably intervenes into the other — they are the “two” sides of the Möbius strip. In other words, when the perspective shifts, the actual ontological status of the object shifts in reality. Don’t forget, for Žižek, ontology falls on the side of language/the symbolic order. Think about how a kid hates the taste of beer, but because they want to be like the adults, they keep on plugging away at it until one day they actually do like it. There is no ‘objective’ reading of beer (that’s not to say there aren’t ‘dumb’ facts), nor is it entirely subjective and relative, the subject and the object are mediated and so as the subject’s perspectival point of experience shifts, so does the actual ontological status of the beer. There is the truth of the subject and in this way we can have two truths that contradict. Another example is how the epistemological frames of physics and biology see their object differently. A rose is alive for biology, it is ‘dead’ matter in physics. Its status shifts depending on the glasses you wear. This is the meaning of the glasses in the film They Live. Taking the glasses off is just a metaphor, all you can do is shift between one pair and another, between the glasses of physics and biology, or between the glasses of Capitalism and Marxism. If you like, one perspective objects to the other, and this is more what objectivity really is – exposing the truth of contradictions. After Kant and Hegel, there is no going back, no pretending you can take the glasses off, without them we would be exposed to the real and deadly jouissance.
So, when you think of the great debate of evolution, Žižek’s point is that there is nothing inherently wrong with the theory, only when you apply it as an absolute. Wearing glasses through which we see the world in evolutionary terms, results in us seeing reality in its Ontic ‘totality’ as an evolutionary process, HOWEVER, today’s cognitive sciences and evolutionary biology cannot account for the fact that in imagining a world prior to putting those glasses on, we still (inadvertently) look through the same glasses in positing the world as an object of scientific explanation. Apropos of this problem of putting on the glasses and not realising you’re wearing them, with the ‘objective’ scientific glasses, even when you imagine a time before putting them on, you’re still wearing them, because the very notion of a “time before” arises from the notion of time as objective (think of Meillassoux’s "ancestral" realm. It’s a bit like asking what happened before the big bang, it’s a nonsensical question.
In other words, these scientific views cannot account for their putting on of the glasses and prior to putting them on, the ontological state of the world is unspeakable (the Real). Likewise, our own transcendental-ontological glasses cannot explain the fact of external reality as an object of successful experimentation etc., all it sees are the conditions of possibility, without saying anything about real ‘dumb’ stupid material processes. “The scientific view of reality thus cannot really account for its own emergence—but, similarly, the transcendental-ontological approach cannot explain the fact of contingent external reality, so the gap between the two is irreducible.”
The only route to take is German Idealism. Using a metaphor from Hitchcock’s vertigo (which I will avoid), effectively Žižek is saying that when the transcendental turn (Kant to Hegel) happened, a pair of glasses were put on that saw that we were stuck with putting on glasses (the transcendental conditions of possibility) and can never take them off. The mistake of post-Hegelian development were moves like vulgar positivism etc., that claims all we can ever trust is empirical data in a naïve attempt to return to reality (as empirical ontology). Heidegger saw Hölderlin as the exception to this trend in declaring all we can do is tell ourselves stories about things instead, recognising they are stories (hence the danger of mythologizing woman as representative of the Real).
For us, on the contrary, all four great German idealists—Kant, Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel—articulated this distance, i.e., they struggled with how to break out of the horizon of absolute subjectivity without regressing to pre-transcendental realism.
So after all that, what the fuck is materialism in “dialectical materialism”?. Right then, here we go. For me, the best way to see the problem of matter is, of all people, Noam Chomsky “any property can be considered material, if one defines matter such that it has that property”, meaning we don’t know what matter is, if we go looking for empirical qualities it doesn’t take us anywhere. Žižek’s answer is we need to think of materialism without matter “a purely formal materialism of waves, quanta, or whatever, which move in a dematerialized space.” In other words, we have to stop the idea that if we look deep enough, we will find the dirty truth of matter behind appearances, rather the truth lies in the collapse of appearances, the collapse of consistency. The answer is to look at the formal nature of appearances, the presentation of forms, how forms arise. As I said in the primer — reality itself is incomplete, like a computer game when you take the camera places you’re not supposed to go, you find an abyss behind appearances, a failure (e.g. on the quantum level in physics). So, it is not just that, due to subjective limitations, a human subject can never fully grasp reality in itself (very roughly speaking, the Kantian position). This epistemological limitation is possible only on the basis that reality, ontologically or in itself, is incomplete (very roughly, what Žižek does with the Hegelian move after Kant
True materialism always implies such a “disappearance” of matter in a network of formal relations.
and
So why call this materialism? Because (and here the notion of unorientables enters) this movement of “abstract” immaterial should be conceived as totally contingent, aleatoric, inorganic, purposeless, and in this sense non-spiritual.
In other words, there are no Laws here, no Big Other that tells what we think of as matter, what it is or what it is supposed to do, it is random chance that seems to make things happen sometimes, and not happen another, not a predetermined set of causes. Which means evolution is pure chance, and has nothing to do with inevitability and progress etc.
Materialism should be totally deprived of any sense of evolution, organic development, progressive orientation—the worst idealism is the one masked as evolutionary materialism, a vision of reality as an organic whole which gradually develops itself into more and more complex forms.
Why is this politically relevant? because the dominant ideological stance is of progress — the world is slowly becoming a safer place, we are becoming more and more civilised etc. That is what happens when you cut the Möbius strip and lay it out flat – the idea of progress towards the absolute at the end of the strip (peace on earth, food for all, even transhumanism etc.). But like the peace before the storm, Žižek insists that true dialectical analysis demands that we look for the turn on the loop that will “cut short the continuity of progress” (the light at the end of the tunnel is a train heading towards us). The whole point of fore fronting unorientables is that they are all surface, all appearances that twist and suddenly turn, any notion of depth is an effect of their convoluted space (that there is an ‘Other’ side where truth resides, for Žižek, truth is in the twist).
So, the book is an elaboration of the basic structures of unorientables broken down into four parts, each containing:
A Theorem (a philosophical thesis)
A Corollary - a proposition that follows from the thesis and brings out its consequences.
A series of scholia, explanatory comments which apply the basic thesis to a singular (and sometimes contingent) topic.
Wash, rinse and repeat:
Theorem I is a layout of the state of ontology now – all the ‘new’ ontologies, from Deleuzian vitality to Badiou’s multiplicity of being and Object Orientated Ontology, all of which are a panic response to the endless self-reflexive probing of deconstructivism and an attempt to return to a “positive vision of what reality is”. Meanwhile, he and Alenka Zupančič and others (I am glad he mentions her because she is crucial to his project and doesn’t get enough credit), hit them hard with the failure of each and every of these ontologies that “echoes the thwarted character of reality itself”. To put it in other terms, they all take the position of the master and need dethroning as quickly and precisely as possible. The section leaves open the question “Can we step behind this gap, to a more primordial dimension?”
Theorem II is the key moment of the book as it basically says yes: “one can step behind the parallax gap by way of redoubling it, by way of transposing it into the thing itself, and the terrain in which this redoubling takes place for us, humans, is that of sexuality—sexuality as our privileged contact with the Absolute.” Sexuality is basically a force of negativity that fucks everything up and it is this disruption of ‘orientable’ binaries (male/female etc.), reducing them to the “pure” difference of two apparent sides of the Möbius strip, that are in fact the same side that falls back into itself. He delves into Kant’s antinomies of pure reason and the dynamic and mathematical sublime. I would read [this piece by Joan Copjec] (https://b-ok.cc/book/685001/ceec86) if I were you (from pg.94 to 119), it was a seminal moment when Copjec connected Kant’s antinomies with Lacan’s formulas of sexuation and will help clarify Žižek’s less successful attempts at it.
Theorem III is getting really hardcore. He equates three unorientables with the triad of Hegel’s logic.
Möbius strip = the continuous passage of a concept into its opposite (being passes into nothingness, quantity into quality, etc.).
cross-cap = a cut into this continuity, and this cut makes the relationship between the two opposites that of reflection: with the cross-cap, pure difference enters the stage, the difference between appearance and essence, a thing and its properties, cause and its effects, etc.
Klein bottle = subjectivity enters: in it, the circle of reflexivity is brought to the Absolute, the cause becomes nothing but an effect of its effects, etc. (that’s why the Klein bottle cannot be rendered in three dimensional space).
Its worth fucking around on YouTube etc for videos about these shapes, how the cross-cap and the Klein bottle are derivations of the Möbius strip (e.g. here, here and some images here). Bear in mind that the Klein bottle cannot be represented properly in 3 dimensional space without introducing intersections that are not there, so imagine trying to run your finger over the surfaces and so how you return to the origin. This video of imaginary numbers fucks with my head in that if you extend the graphic (at about 2 min.50 secs in), it looks like it will become an unorientable surface if it keeps on going.
Theorem IV returns to the main theme “that of the persistence of abstraction (of radical negativity which cannot be “sublated” into a subordinated moment of concrete totality). We shouldn’t pass too quickly over these terms “concrete” and “abstraction”. Any Hegelians please chip in. They appear like binaries of representation and non-representation respectively, but are in fact two sides of the Möbius strip. To talk of “the population” is to evoke a concrete totality (of a nation, state etc.), but in doing so it creates a false impression of a whole (“The British population have spoken”), whereas it is in fact an abstraction as class division is omitted (only a portion have spoken, and those ‘portions’ themselves are internally divided). To talk of matter is to talk of a concentration of many determinations (as predicates) as if together they constitute a substantial thing called matter, whereas in fact inconsistency and the insubstantial are omitted. To talk of sex is to create a false impression of a universal totality (the human species is constituted of male and female), but sex turns out to be an abstraction inasmuch as it leaves out the non-relation. Each of these abstractions (the abstracted elements as non-representational e.g. “Woman”) are each a form of ‘excess’, and are the grounding of the concrete. He will explore how this is the same for reason, its ground is the excess of madness; the ethics of community is grounded in the excess of war; “stable relationships” are grounded in the excess of deadly sexual passion. He accuses of assemblage theory, or any other realist ontology, of not taking into account this negativity and its irreducible dimension of subjectivity.
Before confronting the basic ontological question that he mentioned before, that is to say, by redoubling the parallax gap, he wants to describe the gap, the “crack in the positive order of being, and of the way this crack is supplemented by the transcendental dimension” — I assume how fantasy arises. Then:
1), dealing with the actual move of redoubling the crack as our sole contact with the absolute and in the process explaining, with reference to Kant’s antinomies, why—for us, humans— the primordial form of this contact is sexual experience as an experience of failure.
2) Outlining the topological structures of the redoubling of the crack via progression from the Möbius strip, to the cross-cap and finally the Klein bottle.
3) Finally “the notion of inhuman subject which fits the impersonal assemblage of things and processes.”
Each of these will have their corollaries and then scholia mentioned before, which I won’t bother to list. You can read them on pg.10 onwards (the pdf has no pg. numbers, so it starts with “Each of the theorems is followed by a corollary”). But the very nice touch at the end is the statement:
A careful reader will notice how the structure of each of the book’s four parts echoes, reproduces even, the basic ontological matrix promoted by the book: a theorem stands for the universal genus, a universal axiom; its corollary stands for its species (following Hegel’s claim that, ultimately, every genus has only one species); this one species is in antagonism with its genus, there is imbalance between the genus and its species because there is no second species that would complement the first one so that the two would form a balanced Whole. This lack of the second species is then filled in by the multiplicity of contingent scholia.
He talks briefly about, effectively, how his project fails to produce a ‘positive-realist vision of the universe’, nor a positive idea that can be the centre of an act of emancipation, which is, actually, the mark of its success “this thwarted identity is my vision of the Real, it is the basic condition of our lives.” This is really a statement from the feminine position of the non-all, one which Zupančič somewhere recommends as preferable to the masculine option of attempting an all-encompassing totalising theory that can be turned into a master’s discourse.
Finally, and here’s his red flag: in our times, “the true enemy of the present book” is not competing theories (realist ontologies), but that our lives are centred around fifteen seconds of jouissance (that scrolling through reddit is – and so I doubt that more than a few have read this far). He centres on an idea that seemed to have come originally from this guy, namely Word Art —the kind of crap on McDonald’s walls with a picture and ‘words of wisdom’ that are a short-circuit to enjoyment, which takes us back to the beginning of the introduction: Enjoyment, enjoyment, en-fucking-joyment. Thinking is not enjoying, because thinking involves confronting antagonisms. Memes are much easier to deal with, right?
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Временно бесплатные курсы Udemy

Временно бесплатные курсы Udemy

https://preview.redd.it/se7zt100k9c31.jpg?width=700&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b7d9eb97754935764b044d2dd31900c6106efab5
Подборка временно бесплатных курсов Udemy.122 шт. Промокоды, вшиты в ссылки.Все курсы на английском.

  1. Agile Retrospective: Continuous Improvement + Kaizen Wth Scrum
  2. Artificial Intelligence Concepts - AI 101
  3. Build Interactive Apps Using VueJS, Vuex And VueRouter
  4. C Programming 2019
  5. CloverETL Data Integration
  6. Create A SHMUP With Unity 3D
  7. Google Cloud Platform Associate Cloud Engineer Practice Test
  8. How To Create Android Apps Without Coding Advance Course
  9. How to Install Linux Mint (Cinnamon) on a Virtual Machine
  10. How to Install Ubuntu Linux on a Virtual Machine
  11. How To Uv Unwrap Models In Blender
12. Introduction To SAS
13. iOS 12 Chat Application Like WhatsApp And Viber
14. iOS App Grocery List (Swift 3.1, iOS10.3) From 0 To AppStore
  1. iOS12 Animations, Learn Swift Animation With UIKit
16. iOS12 Bootcamp From Beginner To Professional iOS Developer
  1. JavaScript & LeetCode | The Ultimate Interview Bootcamp
  2. Learn Angular 8 By Creating A Simple Full Stack Web App
  3. Learn How To Make Trading Card Game Menus With Unity 3D
20. Learn React JS And Web API By Creating A Full Stack Web App
  1. Learn To Code Trading Card Game Battle System With Unity 3D
  2. Learn To Code With Python 3!
  3. Linux For Absolute Beginners!
  4. Linux Shell Terminal Command Basics
  5. Machine Learning iOS 11
  6. MapReduce Architecture For Big Data
  7. QuickChat 2.0 (WhatsApp Like Chat) iOS10 And Swift 3
  8. Random Forest Algorithm In Machine Learning
  9. Scrum Advanced: Software Development & Program Management
  10. Scrum Certification Prep + Scrum Master + Agile Scrum Training
  11. Simple And Advanced Topics Of Animating 2D Characters
  12. SSL Complete Guide: HTTP To HTTPS
  13. Start your own online store now for FREE
  14. Swift Weather (Meteorology) Application With REST API
  15. The Complete jQuery Course 2019: Build Real World Projects!
  16. Understanding On Google Charts
  17. User Stories For Agile Scrum + Product Owner + Business Analysis
  18. WP Plugin Development - Build Your Own Plugin!
  19. Double Your Office Productivity Using Google Apps
  20. How to become a much better & safer driver & avoid accidents
  21. Leadership Wisdom - Advanced Leadership Strategies
  22. Use your perfectionism to be more successful at work
  23. 3D Animation Film-Making With Plotagon: Ultra-Speed 2019 Design
  24. Blender Beginners Guide To 3D Modeling Game Asset Pipeline Design
  25. Citrix 1Y0-371 Designing Deploying Managing Citrix Exam IT & Software
  26. Complete Whiteboard Video Creation With VideoScribe: 2019 Design
  27. Create Lightning Fast Videos With InVideo: AI Video Making Design
  28. Learn Cinema 4D: Low Poly Tree Design
  29. Learn Illustrator CC: Create Simple Flat Vector Characters Design
  30. The Illustration Masterclass Design
  31. The Open Source Multimedia Masterclass Design
  32. Camtasia Studio 9: Become a Video Editing Guru With Camtasia
  33. 10 Copywriting Hacks That Work In 2019
  34. 10 Facebook Marketing Hacks That Work In 2019
  35. Certified Facebook Marketing 2019 (Complete Masterclass)
  36. Certified Network Marketer (Network Marketing & MLM Mastery)
  37. ClickBank Affiliate Marketing Secrets Home Business Success
  38. ClickBank Affiliate Marketing: NO Cost, No Website - Proven
  39. Competitor Analysis Tools For 2019: Part 1
  40. Digital Marketing Secrets For Beginners
  41. Email Blasting For Commissions [CPA & Affiliate Marketing]
  42. Email Marketing Mastery to Earn More & Build a Huge List
63. Facebook Ads 101. Complete Facebook Ads & Marketing Course
  1. Facebook Marketing: Advanced Targeting Strategies
  2. Facebook Marketing: How To Build A List With Lead Ads
  3. Facebook Marketing: How To Build A Targeted Email List
  4. Fraud Analytics Using R & Microsoft Excel
  5. Gamification: Use Gamification In Marketing
  6. Google Analytics For Beginners 2019
  7. Google Analytics For WordPress to Track Your Website Traffic
  8. Home Business: CPA Marketing From Scratch
  9. How To Get Your First 1,000 Facebook Fans: For Beginners
  10. How To Promote CPA Offers With Bing Ads
  11. Influencer Content Marketing: Killer Tactics For 2019
  12. Instagram Marketing Growth Tips [Influencer Shortcuts]
  13. Marketing Analytics Using R And Excel
  14. Master ClickFunnels & Create Sales Funnels Like a Boss
  15. Modern Social Media Marketing - Complete Certificate Course
  16. Powerpoint 4 Video Part A - Introduction + Character Animation
  17. Secrets Exposed: Find The Most Profitable Niches Of 2019
  18. Talking Robots: Artificial Intelligence Audiobook Creation
  19. The Complete Social Media Marketing Agency Masterclass
  20. VideoScribe: Whiteboard Animation From Zero To Hero
  21. VideoScribe Whiteboard Animation: Create Amazing Promo Video
  22. Viral Content Buzz - Killer Tactics For Blog Promotions
  23. YouTube Creator Tips [Grow A Channel-Get More Subs & Views]
  24. Youtube SEO Course: How TO Rank # 1 On YouTube In 2019
  25. YouTube Video Marketing For Domination: ViralNomics 2019
  26. Artificial Intelligence Music Creation & Remixing 2019
  27. STRUMMING SIMPLIFIED: 51 Guitar Rhythms For All Styles!
  28. Agile Project Management: Scrum Step By Step With Examples
  29. Amazon Dropship Mastery
  30. Amazon FBA Tycoon - The Ultimate Private Label Masterclass
  31. Artificial Intelligence And Predictive Analysis Using Python
  32. Binary Options Trading Ninja: The Bandit Strategy
  33. Bitcoin Valuation: Methods And Frameworks
  34. Business Education: Guide To Blockchain And Cryptocurrencies
  35. Certified Network Marketer (Network Marketing & MLM Mastery)
  36. ClickBank Affiliate Marketing Secrets Home Business Success
  37. Dropshipping With WordPress: Create A Dropship Business Fast
  38. eCommerce Business: Set Up Your Own Business From Home
  39. Entrepreneurship: Complete Guide To Business Model Creation
  40. Entrepreneurship Bootcamp: Create Work At Home Business
  41. Entrepreneurship Tips For Success
  42. Futures Trading Ninja: DIY Futures Trading Course (12 Hour)
  43. Gamification: Use Gamification In Marketing
  44. Home Business: CPA Marketing From Scratch
  45. How To Be Lucky In Business And Life
  46. Lean Six Sigma Applications In Information Technology
  47. Online Business: How I Make 5 Figure Passive Income on JVZoo
  48. Pandas With Python Tutorial
  49. Personal / Business Networking Skills For Maximum Success!
  50. Project Management: Deliver On Time + Scrum Project Delivery
  51. Scrum Master Training: Case Studies And Confessions
  52. Start Making Passive Income Online: The Complete Bundle
  53. The BeLive Studio2 Course For Live Broadcasters
  54. The Complete Personal Productivity Course - Business & Life
  55. Transformational Leadership - Ultimate Leadership Course
  56. Ultimate Time Management - BEST Time Management Course
  57. User Stories For Agile Scrum + Product Owner + Business Analysis
  58. Your Complete Guide To Agile, Scrum, Kanban
  59. Your Ultimate Blueprint To Sell Products Online


Источник: Телеграм-канал WScoupon
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MAME 0.219

MAME 0.219

MAME 0.219 arrives today, just in time for the end of February! This month we’ve got another piece of Nintendo Game & Watch history – Pinball – as well as a quite a few TV games, including Dream Life Superstar, Designer’s World, Jenna Jameson’s Strip Poker, and Champiyon Pinball. The previously-added Care Bears and Piglet’s Special Day TV games are now working, as well as the big-endian version of the MIPS Magnum R4000. As always, the TV games vary enormously in quality, from enjoyable titles, to low-effort games based on licensed intellectual properties, to horrible bootlegs using blatantly copied assets. If music/rhythm misery is your thing, there’s even a particularly bad dance mat game in there.
On the arcade side, there are fixes for a minor but long-standing graphical issue in Capcom’s genre-defining 1942, and also a fairly significant graphical regression in Seibu Kaihatsu’s Raiden Fighters. Speaking of Seibu Kaihatsu, our very own Angelo Salese significantly improved the experience in Good E-Jan, and speaking of graphics fixes, cam900 fixed some corner cases in Data East’s innovative, but little-known, shoot-’em-up Boogie Wings. Software list additions include the Commodore 64 INPUT 64 collection (courtesy of FakeShemp) and the Spanish ZX Spectrum Load’N’Run collection (added by ICEknight). New preliminary CPU cores and disassemblers include IBM ROMP, the NEC 78K family, Samsung KS0164 and SSD Corp’s Xavix 2.
As always, you can get the source and 64-bit Windows binary packages from the download page.

MAME Testers Bugs Fixed

New working machines

New working clones

Machines promoted to working

Clones promoted to working

New machines marked as NOT_WORKING

New clones marked as NOT_WORKING

New working software list additions

Software list items promoted to working

New NOT_WORKING software list additions

Source Changes

submitted by cuavas to MAME [link] [comments]

SAS Certification : How to Create temporary and permanent SAS data sets  Topic #2 ft. Naidu SAS Output dataset using trace option Learn SAS: Manage Data (Part 3) SAS Tutorial 8 PROCs Common Options and Statements SAS Software - YouTube

The data set option POINTOBS=YES, which is the default, determines that a compressed data set can be processed with random access (by observation number) rather than sequential access. With random access, you can specify an observation number in the FSEDIT procedure and the POINT= option in the SET and MODIFY statements. About the Data Set Options for Relational Databases Tree level 3. Node 1 of 259 . ANALYZE= Data Set CHAR_AS_BINARY= Data Set Option Tree level 3. Node 136 of 259 . COLUMN Support for this data set option was added in SAS Viya 3.5. The Spark interface is supported only on SAS Viya. See: SUB_CHAR= LIBNAME option Document: SAS Data Set Options: Reference. Assigns an ALTER password to a SAS data set that prevents users from replacing or deleting the file, and enables access to a Read- and Write-protected file. Specifies whether to fetch all character columns as binary values when reading data from DB2. Use the COMPRESS= data set option only when you are creating a SAS data file (member type DATA). You cannot compress SAS views, because they contain no data. The COPY procedure does not support data set options. Therefore, you cannot use the COMPRESS= data set option in PROC COPY or a COPY statement from PROC DATASETS. Assigns an ALTER password to a SAS data set that prevents users from replacing or deleting the file, and enables access to a Read- and Write-protected file. SAS Data Set Options: Reference. ALTER= Data Set Option: UNIX. CHAR_AS_BINARY= Data Set Option. CHAR_AS_BINARY= YES

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SAS Certification : How to Create temporary and permanent SAS data sets Topic #2 ft. Naidu

SAS Programming on Report Generating: Part 2: ODS: Creating Excel Output with multiple work sheets - Duration: 11:01. SC Statistical Programming 1,823 views 11:01 SAS is the leader in analytics. Through innovative analytics, business intelligence and data management software and services, SAS helps customers at more th... SAS Data Step Tutorials -- Common PROC Options and Statements (BY, ID, WHERE, VAR, LABEL). For more information see www.stattutorials.com. By Alan Elliott SAS Data Step Tutorial 15 Cleaning up a Messy Data Set, part 2 - Duration: ... SAS Tutorial 8 PROCs Common Options and Statements - Duration: ... 3.6 Learning SAS by Example : Indepth Base SAS programming for beginners certification program guide by Saurav Gupta: In 3.6 Sas System Options : we will see some commonly used SAS options ...

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