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Ethereum on ARM. New Eth2.0 Raspberry pi 4 image for automatically joining Prylabs Onyx Eth2.0 testnet. Step-by-step guide for installing and activating a validator.

TL;DR: Flash your Raspberry Pi 4, plug in an ethernet cable, connect the SSD disk and power up the device to join the Eth2.0 Onyx testnet.
The image takes care of all the necessary steps to join the Eth2.0 Onyx testnet [1], from setting up the environment and formatting the SSD disk to installing and running the Ethereum Eth1.0 and Eth2.0 clients as well as starting the blockchains synchronization (for both Geth Eth1.0 Goerli [2] and Prysm [3] Eth2.0 Beacon Chain).
You will only need to create a validator account, send the deposit of 32 Goerli ETH to the Onyx contract and start the validator systemd service.
MAIN FEATURES
SOFTWARE INCLUDED

INSTALLATION GUIDE AND USAGE

RECOMMENDED HARDWARE AND SETUP
STORAGE
You will need and SSD to run the Ethereum clients (without an SSD drive there’s absolutely no chance of syncing the Ethereum blockchain). There are 2 options:
In both cases, avoid getting low quality SSD disks as it is a key component of you node and it can drastically affect the performance (and sync times). Keep in mind that you need to plug the disk to an USB 3.0 port (in blue).
IMAGE DOWNLOAD AND INSTALLATION
1.- Download the image:
http://www.ethraspbian.com/downloads/ubuntu-20.04-preinstalled-server-arm64+raspi-eth2-onyx.img.zip
SHA256 13bc7ac4de6e18093b99213511791b2a24b659727b22a8a8d44f583e73a507cc
2.- Flash the image
Insert the microSD in your Desktop / Laptop and download the file:
Note: If you are not comfortable with command line or if you are running Windows, you can use Etcher [8]
Open a terminal and check your MicroSD device name running:
sudo fdisk -l 
You should see a device named mmcblk0 or sdd. Unzip and flash the image:
unzip ubuntu-20.04-preinstalled-server-arm64+raspi-eth2-onyx.img.zip sudo dd bs=1M if=ubuntu-20.04-preinstalled-server-arm64+raspi.img of=/dev/mmcblk0 conv=fdatasync status=progress 
3.- Insert de MicroSD into the Raspberry Pi 4. Connect an Ethernet cable and attach the USB SSD disk (make sure you are using a blue port).
4.- Power on the device
The Ubuntu OS will boot up in less than one minute but you will need to wait approximately 7 minutes in order to allow the script to perform the necessary tasks to join the Onyx testnet (it will reboot again)
5.- Log in
You can log in through SSH or using the console (if you have a monitor and keyboard attached)
User: ethereum Password: ethereum 
You will be prompted to change the password on first login, so you will need to log in twice.
6.- Forward 30303 and 13000 ports in your router (both UDP and TCP). If you don’t know how to do this, google “port forwarding” followed by your router model.
7.- Getting console output
You can see what’s happening in the background by typing:
sudo tail -f /valog/syslog 
7.- Grafana Dashboards
There are 2 Grafana dashboards to monitor the node (see section “Grafana Dashboards below”.
See [9]

The Onyx Eth2.0 testnet

Onyx is an Eth2.0 testnet created by Prylabs according to the latest official specification for Eth2.0, the v0.12.1 [10] release (which is aimed to be the final).
In order to run an Onyx Eth 2.0 node you will need 3 components:
The image takes care of the Eth1.0 Geth and Eth2.0 Beacon Chain configurations and syncs. So, once flashed (and after a first reboot), Geth (Eth1.0 client) starts syncing the Goerli testnet and the Beacon Chain (Eth2.0 client) gets activated through the Prysm client, both as systemd services.
When the Goerli testnet sync is completed, the Beacon Chain starts syncing. Both chains are necessary as the validator needs to communicate with them (as explained below).
Activating the validator
Once Goerli and the Beacon chain are in sync you have just one task left, configure the Validator for enabling the staking process.
The image provides the Prysm validator client for running the staking process. With this validator, you will create an account with 2 keys (public and private) and get an HEX string that needs to be sent to the Eth 1.0 blockchain as data through a 32 ETH transaction.
The Beacon Chain (which is connected to the Eth1 chain) will detect this deposit (which includes the validator public key) and the Validator will be activated.
So, let’s get started. Geth Goerli testnet and the Beacon Chain are already syncing in the background. Goerli will sync in about 1 hour and the Beacon Chain in about 2 hours (so this will take 3 hours overall).
The easiest way to enable a Prysm validator is to use the Prylabs web portal to get Goerli ETH (testnet ETH) and follow their instructions:
https://prylabs.net/participate
Let’s break this down:
Step 1) Get Prysm
Nothing to do here. Prysm is already installed.
Step 2) Get GöETH — Test ETH
We need 32 ETH to stake (it is fake ETH as this is a tesnet). Prylabs created a faucet with a great UI so you can easily get 32.5 Goerli ETH.
You will need a web3 provider to use the faucet. Install Metamask browser extension (if you don’t have it running yet). Create an account and set the network to “Goerli test network” (on the top of the Metamask screen). Now, click once in “Metamask” and then click “Need GoETH?” button. Confirm the transaction.
Once funded, you will see something like this:
You are 0x0b2eFdbFB8EcaF7F4eCF6853cbd5eaD86510d63C and you have 32.5 GöETH. 
Step 3). Generate a validator public / private key
Go to your Raspberry Pi console and run the following command (make sure you are logged in with your ethereum user):
validator accounts create 
Press return to confirm the default path
Enter a password twice (you will need it later to run the validator so write it down and be careful). Once finished, your account will be created (under the /home/ethereum/.eth2validators directory) containing, among other info, your validator keys. Additionally you will get the deposit data as follows (this is an example):
========================Deposit Data======================= 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 =================================================================== ***Enter the above deposit data into step 3 on https://prylabs.net/participate*** 
Copy this data (just the hexadecimal part, from 0x to the last number), go back to step 3 of Prylabs website and paste it into the field “Your validator deposit data”.
Step 4) Start your beacon chain & validator clients
Beacon chain is already running in the background so let’s configure the validator. Just edit the /etc/ethereum/prysm-validator.conf file and replace “changeme” string with your password (you can use nano or vim editors). Now run:
sudo systemctl enable prysm-validator && sudo systemctl start prysm-validator 
Check if everything went right by running:
sudo systemctl status prysm-validator 
Step 5) Send a validator deposit
We are almost there. Just click the “Make deposit” button and confirm the transaction.
Done!
Now you need to wait for the validator to get activated. In time, the beacon chain will detect the 32 ETH deposit (which contains the validator public key) and the system will put your validator in queue. These are the validator status that you will see during the activation process:

Grafana Dashboards

We configured 2 Grafana Dashboards to let users monitor both Eth1.0 and Eth2.0 progress. To access the dashboards just open your browser and type your Raspberry IP followed by the 3000 port:
http://replace_with_your_IP:3000 user: admin passwd: ethereum 
There are 3 dashboards available:
Lot of info here. You can see for example if Geth is in sync by checking (in the Blockchain section) if Headers, Receipts and Blocks are aligned or easily find the validator status.

Whats's next

We are planning a new release for a multi testnet Eth2.0 network including Prysm, Teku and Lighthouse client (and hopefully Nimbus).

Gitcoin Grant

Gitcoin Grants round 6 is on!. If you appreciate our work, please consider donating. Even $1 can make the difference!
https://gitcoin.co/grants/384/ethereum-on-arm
Follow us on Twitter. We post regular updates and info you may be interested in!
https://twitter.com/EthereumOnARM

References

  1. https://medium.com/prysmatic-labs/introducing-the-onyx-testnet-6dadbd95d873
  2. https://goerli.net
  3. https://docs.prylabs.network/docs/getting-started/
  4. https://www.reddit.com/ethereum/comments/gf3nhg/ethereum_on_arm_raspberry_pi_4_images_release/
    1. Installation script: https://github.com/diglos/pi-gen/blob/ethraspbian2.0/stage2/04-ethereum/files/rc.local.eth2.onyx
  5. https://github.com/ethereum/go-ethereum/releases/tag/v1.9.15
  6. https://github.com/prysmaticlabs/prysm/releases/tag/v1.0.0-alpha.13
  7. https://grafana.com/
    1. Prysm Dashboard: https://github.com/GuillaumeMiralles/prysm-grafana-dashboard/tree/master
  8. https://etcher.io
  9. https://twitter.com/EthereumOnARM/status/1277184480189517824
  10. https://github.com/ethereum/eth2.0-specs/releases
  11. https://github.com/goerli/altona
submitted by diglos76 to ethereum [link] [comments]

Aragon Court ANJ$

Found this write up on Kilocorn
Aragon Court $ANJ
A decentralized oracle protocol that handles subjective disputes which require the judgment of human jurors. These jurors stake a token called ANJ which allows them to be drafted into juries and earn fees for successfully adjudicating disputes.
Launched on February 10, 2020
Aragon Network Jurisdiction token (ANJ) will be created and an Aragon Court instance will be deployed using ANJ as its token. During the pre-activation period, ANT holders were able to convert ANT to ANJ on a 1:100 basis (1 ANT = 100 ANJ) In phase 1, ANT holders could start being able to get ANJ to become jurors. There was a period of time during which all ANT holders that stake could get the same amount of ANJ per ANT. After this period of time, an Aragon Fundraising bonding curve was initialized and allows for staking and unstaking at a variable rate.
Notable figures:
Luis Cuende (founder of Aragon) - hacker and free culture lover who founded various startups since he got involved in free software development at age 12. - He was awarded as the best hacker of Europe under 18 at age 15. - He was also an Advisor to the Vice-president of the European Commission, Neelie Kroes, who is in charge of the EU's Digital Agenda. - Authored a book that reached the #1 in Amazon's Business category when he was 19. - Founded Stampery at 19 (digital certificates) - Founded Asturix at 13 (open source software)
Tim Draper (investor in Aragon) - Bought $1 million of Aragon tokens OTC for $1 per when ANT was only $0.70 when he found out about Aragon Court. - Governance maximalist (early investor in Tezos when they were building governance mechanism directly into the ledger) - Billionaire VC investor that helps entrepreneurs drive their visions through funding, education, media, and government reform. He has founded thirty Draper venture funds, Draper University, Bizworld, and two statewide initiatives to improve governance and education. - Founded DFJ Venture which was involved with helping launch/scale many startups such as: Twitter, SpaceX, Ring, Baidu, Twilio etc. - One of the current largest crypto whales in the world
Competition: Kleros
Elevator pitch: The Aragon Court is a decentralized oracle protocol developed and maintained by the Aragon Network and it can be used by organizations to resolve subjective disputes with binary outcomes. Proposal Agreement disputes rely on the court where jurors stake tokens in order to earn the right to perform these services so they can earn a portion of the fees.
Deeper Dive:
Futarchy
The premise is that if you have a decision which needs to be made, and you can relate that decision clearly to some objective success metric, you can use prediction markets to pick the option which is predicted to be more positively associated with your success metric. Anyone can participate in the prediction market, but attempting to manipulate the outcome of the decision by manipulating the prediction market represents a large cost so long as the success metric used to settle the market cannot be easily manipulated.
High-level flow * Jurors deposit ANT into a bonding curve to generate ANJ (likely using Aragon Black’s implementation) * Jurors stake ANJ to the Court contract and schedule their activation and deactivation for the time period in which they can be drafted to rule on disputes. * Court fees and configuration parameters are controlled by a governor (the Aragon Network), but can only be modified for future terms to ensure that the rules can’t change for ongoing disputes as much as possible. * The creator of a dispute must pay fees to cover the maintenance gas costs of the Court and the jurors that will adjudicate their dispute. The governor of the Court gets a share of all the fees paid out in the Court. * Jurors are randomly drafted to adjudicate disputes. Because the Court isn’t sybil resistant, jurors chance to be drafted is proportional to the amount of ANJ they have activated. * When drafted, jurors must commit and reveal to a ruling. Failure to vote or reveal, results in a penalty for the jurors. * After a ruling is decided, it can be appealed by anyone a certain number of times, after which all active jurors will vote on the last appeal, providing an unappealable ruling. * When the final ruling is decided, all the adjudication rounds for the dispute can be settled taking into account the final ruling for rewards and penalties.
DYOR: https://etherscan.io/token/0xcD62b1C403 ... B51780b184
https://github.com/aragon/aragon-court/tree/mastedocs
https://forum.aragon.org/t/aragon-netwo ... dates/1263
https://github.com/aragon/whitepapebl ... /README.md
https://aragon.org/blog/aragon-court-is-live-on-mainnet
https://blog.aragon.one/aragon-chain/
https://blog.ethereum.org/2014/08/21/in ... -futarchy/
submitted by bananasplitsyourgirl to CryptoMoonShots [link] [comments]

Olymp Plus -Trading Assistant

Olymp Trade has launched a trading assistant app which could be of great help to traders. It got different features in training and education. You can download this app in the playstore. I'll attach a link here: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.olymptrade.plus&hl=en
submitted by CC_trading to binaryoptions [link] [comments]

[Table] Asteroid Day AMA – We’re engineers and scientists working on a mission that could, one day, help save humankind from asteroid extinction. Ask us anything!

Source
There are several people answering: Paolo Martino is PM, Marco Micheli is MM, Heli Greus is HG, Detlef Koschny is DVK, and Aidan Cowley is AC.
Questions Answers
Can we really detect any asteroids in space with accuracy and do we have any real means of destroying it? Yes, we can detect new asteroids when they are still in space. Every night dozens of new asteroids are found, including a few that can come close to the Earth.
Regarding the second part of the question, the goal would be to deflect them more than destroy them, and it is technologically possible. The Hera/DART mission currently being developed by ESA and NASA will demonstrate exactly this capability.
MM
I always wanted to ask: what is worse for life on Earth - to be hit by a single coalesced asteroid chunk, or to be hit by a multiple smaller pieces of exploded asteroid, aka disrupted rubble pile scenario? DVK: This is difficult to answer. If the rubble is small (centimetres to meters) it is better to have lots of small ones – they’d create nice bright meteors. If the rubble pieces are tens of meters it doesn’t help.
Let’s say that hypothetically, an asteroid the size of Rhode Island is coming at us, it will be a direct hit - you’ve had the resources and funding you need, your plan is fully in place, everything you’ve wanted you got. The asteroid will hit in 10 years, what do you do? DVK: I had to look up how big Rhode Island is – a bit larger than the German Bundesland ‘Saarland’. Ok – this would correspond to an object about 60 km in diameter, right? That’s quite big – we would need a lot of rocket launches, this would be extremely difficult. I would pray. The good news is that we are quite convinced that we know all objects larger than just a few kilometers which come close to our planet. None of them is on a collision course, so we are safe.
the below is a reply to the above
Why are you quite convinced that you know all object of that size? And what is your approach in finding new celestial bodies? DVK: There was a scientific study done over a few years (published in Icarus 2018, search for Granvik) where they modelled how many objects there are out there. They compared this to the observations we have with the telescopic surveys. This gives us the expected numbers shown here on our infographic: https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2018/06/Asteroid_danger_explained
There are additional studies to estimate the ‘completeness’ – and we think that we know everything above roughly a few km in size.
To find new objects, we use survey telescopes that scan the night sky every night. The two major ones are Catalina and Pan-STARRS, funded by NASA. ESA is developing the so-called Flyeye telescope to add to this effort https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2017/02/Flyeye_telescope.
the below is a reply to the above
Thanks for the answer, that's really interesting! It's also funny that the fist Flyeye deployed is in Sicily, at less than 100km from me, I really had no idea DVK: Indeed, that's cool. Maybe you can go and visit it one day.
the below is a reply to the original answer
What about Interstellar objects however, like Oumuamua? DVK: The two that we have seen - 'Oumuamua and comet Borisov - were much smaller than the Saarland (or Rhode Island ;-) - not sure about Borisov, but 'Oumuamua was a few hundred meters in size. So while they could indeed come as a complete surprise, they are so rare that I wouldn't worry.
Would the public be informed if an impending asteroid event were to happen? And, how would the extinction play out? Bunch of people crushed to death, knocked off our orbit, dust clouds forever? DVK: We do not keep things secret – all our info is at the web page http://neo.ssa.esa.int. The ‘risky’ objects are in the ‘risk page’. We also put info on really close approaches there. It would also be very difficult to keep things ‘under cover’ – there are many high-quality amateur astronomers out there that would notice.
In 2029 asteroid Apophis will fly really close to Earth, even closer than geostationary satellites. Can we use some of those satellites to observe the asteroid? Is it possible to launch very cheap cube sats to flyby Apophis in 2029? DVK: Yes an Apophis mission during the flyby in 2029 would be really nice. We even had a special session on that topic at the last Planetary Defense Conference in 2019, and indeed CubeSats were mentioned. This would be a nice university project – get me a close-up of the asteroid with the Earth in the background!
the below is a reply to the above
So you’re saying it was discussed and shelved? In the conference we just presented ideas. To make them happen needs funding - in the case of ESA the support of our member countries. But having something presented at a conference is the first step. One of the results of the conference was a statement to space agencies to consider embarking on such a mission. See here: https://www.cosmos.esa.int/documents/336356/336472/PDC_2019_Summary_Report_FINAL_FINAL.pdf/341b9451-0ce8-f338-5d68-714a0aada29b?t=1569333739470
Go to the section 'resolutions'. This is now a statement that scientists can use to present to their funding agencies, demonstrating that it's not just their own idea.
Thanks for doing this AMA! Did we know the Chelyabinsk meteor in 2013 (the one which had some great videos on social media) was coming? Ig not, how comes? Also, as a little side one, have there been any fatalities from impact events in the past 20 years? Unfortunately, the Chelyabinsk object was not seen in advance, because it came from the direction of the Sun where ground-based telescopes cannot look.
No known fatalities from impacts have happened in the past 20 years, although the Chelyabinsk event did cause many injuries, fortunately mostly minor.
MM
the below is a reply to the above
How often do impacts from that direction happen, compared to impacts from visible trajectories? In terms of fraction of the sky, the area that cannot be easily scanned from the ground is roughly a circle with a radius of 40°-50° around the current position of the Sun, corresponding to ~15% of the total sky. However, there is a slight enhancement of objects coming from that direction, therefore the fraction of objects that may be missed when heading towards us is a bit higher.
However, this applies only when detecting an asteroid in its "final plunge" towards the Earth. Larger asteroids can be spotted many orbits earlier, when they are farther away and visible in the night side of the sky. Their orbits can then be determined and their possible impacts predicted even years or decades in advance.
MM
There must be a trade-off when targeting asteroids as they get closer to Earth, is there a rule of thumb at what the best time is to reach them, in terms of launch time versus time to reach the asteroid and then distance from Earth? DVK: Take e.g. a ‘kinetic impactor’ mission, like what DART and Hera are testing. Since we only change the velocity of the asteroid slightly, we need to hit the object early enough so that the object has time to move away from it’s collision course. Finding out when it is possible to launch requires simulations done by our mission analysis team. They take the strength of the launcher into account, also the available fuel for course corrections, and other things. Normally each asteroid has its own best scenario.
Do you also look at protecting the moon from asteroids? Would an impact of a large enough scale potentially have major impacts on the earth? DVK: There are programmes that monitor the Moon and look for flashes from impacting small asteroids (or meteoroids) - https://neliota.astro.noa.g or the Spanish MIDAS project. We use the data to improve our knowledge about these objects. These programmes just look at what is happening now.
For now we would not do anything if we predicted a lunar impact. I guess this will change once we have a lunar base in place.
Why aren't there an international organisation comprised of countries focused on the asteroid defence? Imagine like the organisation with multi-billion $ budget and program of action on funding new telescopes, asteroid exploration mission, plans for detection of potentially dangerous NEA, protocols on action after the detection - all international, with heads of states discussing these problems? DVK: There are international entities in place, mandated by the UN: The International Asteroid Warning Network (http://www.iawn.net) and the Space Mission Planning Advisory Group (http://www.smpag.net). These groups advise the United Nations. That is exactly where we come up with plans and protocols on action. But: They don’t have budget – that needs to come from elsewhere. I am expecting that if we have a real threat, we would get the budget. Right now, we don’t have a multi-billion budget.
the below is a reply to someone else's answer
There is no actual risk of any sizable asteroids hitting earth in the foreseeable future. Any preparation for it would just be a waste of money. DVK: Indeed, as mentioned earlier, we do not expect a large object to hit is in the near future. We are mainly worried about those in the size range of 20 m to 40 m, which happen on average every few tens of years to hundreds of years. And where we only know a percent of them or even less.
President Obama wanted to send a crewed spacecraft to an asteroid - in your opinion is this something that should still be done in the future, would there be any usefulness in having a human being walk/float on an asteroid's surface? DVK: It would definitely be cool. I would maybe even volunteer to go. Our current missions to asteroids are all robotic, the main reason is that it is much cheaper (but still expensive) to get the same science. But humans will expand further into space, I am sure. If we want to test human exploration activities, doing this at an asteroid would be easier than landing on a planet.
this is another reply Yes, but I am slightly biased by the fact that I work at the European astronaut centre ;) There exist many similarities to what we currently do for EVA (extra vehicular activities) operations on the International Space Station versus how we would 'float' around an asteroid. Slightly biased again, but using such a mission to test exploration technologies would definitely still have value. Thanks Obama! - AC
I've heard that some asteroids contains large amounts of iron. Is there a possibility that we might have "space mines" in the far away future, if our own supply if iron runs out? Yes, this is a topic in the field known as space mining, part of what we call Space Resources. In fact, learning how we can process material we might find on asteroids or other planetary bodies is increasingly important, as it opens up the opportunities for sustainable exploration and commercialization. Its a technology we need to master, and asteroids can be a great target for testing how we can create space mines :) - AC
By how much is DART expected to deflect Didymos? Do we have any indication of the largest size of an asteroid we could potentially deflect? PM: Didymos is a binary asteroid, consisting of a main asteroid Didymos A (~700m) and a smaller asteroid Didymos B (~150m) orbiting around A with a ~12 hours period. DART is expected to impact Didymos B and change its orbital period w.r.t. Didymos A of ~1%. (8 mins)
The size of Didymos B is the most representative of a potential threat to Earth (the highest combination of probability and consequence of impacts), meaning smaller asteroids hit the Earth more often but have less severe consequences, larger asteroids can have catastrophic consequences but their probability of hitting the earth is very very low.
the below is a reply to the above
Why is there less probability of larger asteroids hitting earth? DVK: There are less large objects out there. The smaller they are, the more there are.
the below is a reply to the original answer
Is there any chance that your experiment will backfire and send the asteroid towards earth? PM: Not at all, or we would not do that :) Actually Dimorphos (the Didymos "moon") will not even leave its orbit around Didymos. It will just slightly change its speed.
I'm sure you've been asked this many times but how realistic is the plot of Armageddon? How likely is it that our fate as a species will rely on (either) Bruce Willis / deep sea oil drillers? Taking into consideration that Bruce Willis is now 65 and by the time HERA is launched he will be 69, I do not think that we can rely on him this time (although I liked the movie).
HERA will investigate what method we could use to deflect asteroid and maybe the results will show that we indeed need to call the deep sea oil drillers.
HG
the below is a reply to the above
So then would it be easier to train oil drillers to become astronauts, or to train astronauts to be oil drillers? I do not know which one would be easier since I have no training/experience of deep see oil drilling nor becoming an astronaut, but as long as the ones that would go to asteroid have the sufficient skills and training (even Bruce Willis), I would be happy.
HG
If budget was no object, which asteroid would you most like to send a mission to? Nice question! For me, I'd be looking at an asteroid we know something about, since I would be interested in using it for testing how we could extract resources from it. So for me, I would choose Itokawa (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/25143_Itokawa), which was visited by Hayabusa spacecraft. So we already have some solid prospecting carried out for this 'roid! - AC
this is another reply Not sure if it counts as an asteroid, but Detlef and myself would probably choose ʻOumuamua, the first discovered interstellar object.
MM
the below is a reply to the above
Do we even have the capability to catch up to something like that screaming through our solar system? That thing has to have a heck of a velocity to just barrel almost straight through like that. DVK: Correct, that would be a real challenge. We are preparing for a mission called 'Comet Interceptor' that is meant to fly to an interstellar object or at least a fresh comet - but it will not catch up with it, it will only perform a short flyby.
https://www.esa.int/Science_Exploration/Space_Science/ESA_s_new_mission_to_intercept_a_comet
After proving to be able to land on one, could an asteroid serve as a viable means to transport goods and or humans throughout the solar system when the orbit of said asteroid proves beneficial. While it is probably quite problematic to land the payload, it could save fuel or am I mistaken? Neat idea! Wonder if anyone has done the maths on the amount of fuel you would need/save vs certain targets. - AC
PM: To further complement, the saving is quite marginal indeed because in order to land (softly) on the asteroid you actually need to get into the very same orbit of that asteroid . At that point your orbit remains the same whether you are on the asteroid or not..
can the current anti-ballistic missiles systems intercept a terminal phase earth strike asteroid? or it is better to know beforehand and launch an impacting vehicle into space? DVK: While I do see presentations on nuclear explosions to deflect asteroids at our professional meetings, I have not seen anybody yet studying how we could use existing missile systems. So it's hard to judge whether existing missiles would do the job. But in general, it is better to know as early as possible about a possible impact and deflect it as early as possible. This will minimize the needed effort.
How much are we prepared against asteroid impacts at this moment? DVK: 42… :-) Seriously – I am not sure how to quantify ‘preparedness’. We have international working groups in place, mentioned earlier (search for IAWN, SMPAG). We have a Planetary Defence Office at ESA, a Planetary Defense Office at NASA (who spots the difference?), search the sky for asteroids, build space missions… Still we could be doing more. More telescopes to find the object, a space-based telescope to discover those that come from the direction of the Sun. Different test missions would be useful, … So there is always more we could do.
Have you got any data on the NEO coverage? Is there estimations on the percentage of NEOs we have detected and are tracking? How can we improve the coverage? How many times have asteroids been able to enter earths atmosphere without being detected beforehand? Here’s our recently updated infographics with the fraction of undiscovered NEOs for each size range: https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2018/06/Asteroid_danger_explained
As expected, we are now nearly complete for the large ones, while many of the smaller ones are still unknown.
In order to improve coverage, we need both to continue the current approach, centered on ground-based telescopes, and probably also launch dedicated telescopes to space, to look at the fraction of the sky that cannot be easily observed from the ground (e.g., towards the Sun).
Regarding the last part of your question, small asteroids enter the Earth atmosphere very often (the infographics above gives you some numbers), while larger ones are much rarer.
In the recent past, the largest one to enter our atmosphere was about 20 meters in diameter, and it caused the Chelyabinsk event in 2013. It could not be detected in advance because it came from the direction of the Sun.
We have however detected a few small ones before impact. The first happened in 2008, when a ~4-meter asteroid was found to be on a collision course less than a day before impact, it was predicted to fall in Northern Sudan, and then actually observed falling precisely where (and when) expected.
MM
this is another reply >After
DVK: And to add what MM said - Check out http://neo.ssa.esa.int. There is a ‘discovery statistics’ section which provides some of the info you asked about. NASA is providing similar information here https://cneos.jpl.nasa.gov/stats/. To see the sky which is currently covered by the survey telescopes, you need to service of the Minor Planet Center which we all work together with: http://www.minorplanetcenter.org, ‘observers’, ‘sky coverage’. That is a tool we use to plan where we look with our telescopes, so it is a more technical page.
Are there any automatic systems for checking large numbers of asteroids orbits, to see if the asteroid's orbit is coming dangerously close to Earth, or is it done by people individually for every asteroid? I ask it because LSST Rubin is coming online soon and you know it will discover a lot of new asteroids. Yes, such systems exist, and monitor all known and newly discovered asteroids in order to predict possible future impacts.
The end result of the process is what we call "risk list": http://neo.ssa.esa.int/risk-page
It is automatically updated every day once new observational data is processed.
MM
What are your favourite sci-fi series? DVK: My favorites are ‘The Expanse’, I also liked watching ‘Salvation’. For the first one I even got my family to give me a new subscription to a known internet streaming service so that I can see the latest episodes. I also loved ‘The Jetsons’ and ‘The Flintstones’ as a kid. Not sure the last one counts as sci-fi though. My long-time favorite was ‘Dark Star’.
this is another reply Big fan of The Expanse at the moment. Nice, hard sci-fi that has a good impression of being grounded in reality - AC
this is another reply When I was a kid I liked The Jetsons, when growing up Star Trek, Star wars and I also used to watch with my sister the 'V'.
HG
When determining the potential threat of a NEA, is the mass of an object a bigger factor or size? I'm asking because I'm curious if a small but massive object (say, with the density of Psyche) could survive atmospheric entry better than a comparatively larger but less massive object. The mass is indeed what really matters, since it’s directly related with the impact energy.
And as you said composition also matters, a metal object would survive atmospheric entry better, not just because it’s heavier, but also because of its internal strength.
MM
What are your thoughts on asteroid mining as portrayed in sci-fi movies? Is it feasible? If so would governments or private space programs be the first to do so?What type of minerals can be found on asteroids that would merit the costs of extraction? Certainly there is valuable stuff you can find on asteroids. For example, the likely easiest material you can harvest from an asteroid would be volatiles such as H2O. Then you have industrial metals, things like Iron, Nickel, and Platinum group metals. Going further, you can break apart many of the oxide minerals you would find to get oxygen (getting you closer to producing rocket fuel in-situ!). Its feasible, but still needs alot of testing both here on Earth and eventually needs to be tested on a target. It may be that governments, via agencies like ESA or NASA, may do it first, to prove the principles somewhat, but I know many commercial entities are also aggresively working towards space mining. To show you that its definitely possible, I'd like to plug the work of colleagues who have processed lunar regolith (which is similar to what you may find on asteroids) to extract both oxygen and metals. Check it out here: http://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2019/10/Oxygen_and_metal_from_lunar_regolith
AC
Will 2020's climax be a really big rock? DVK: Let's hope not...
Considering NASA, ESA, IAU etc. is working hard to track Earth-grazing asteroids, how come the Chelyabinsk object that airburst over Russia in 2013 came as a total surprise? The Chelyabinsk object came from the direction of the Sun, where unfortunately ground-based telescopes cannot look at. Therefore, it would not have been possible to discover it in advance with current telescopes. Dedicated space telescopes are needed to detect objects coming from this direction in advance.
MM
the below is a reply to the above
Is this to say that it was within specific solid angles for the entire time that we could have observed it given its size and speed? Yes, precisely that. We got unlucky in this case.
MM
Have any of you read Lucifer's Hammer by Larry Niven? In your opinion, how realistic is his depiction of an asteroid strike on Earth? DVK: I have – but really long ago, so I don’t remember the details. But I do remember that I really liked the book, and I remember I always wanted to have a Hot Fudge Sundae when reading it.
I was thinking about the asteroid threat as a teen and came up with this ideas (Hint: they are not equally serious, the level of craziness goes up real quick). Could you please comment on their feasibility? 1. Attaching a rocket engine to an asteroid to make it gradually change trajectory, do that long in advance and it will miss Earth by thousands of km 2. Transporting acid onto asteroid (which are mainly metal), attaching a dome-shaped reaction chamber to it, using heat and pressure to then carry out the chemical reaction to disintegrate asteroids 3. This one is even more terrible than a previous one and totally Dan Brown inspired — transporting antimatter on asteroid, impacting and causing annihilation. Thank you for this AMA and your time! DVK: Well the first one is not so crazy, I have seen it presented... the difficulty is that all asteroids are rotating in one way or another. So if you continuously fire the engine it would not really help. You'd need to switch the engine on and off. Very complex. And landing on an asteroid is challenging too. Just using the 'kinetic impactor' which we will test with DART/Hera (described elsewhere in this chat) is simpler. Another seriously proposed concept is to put a spacecraft next to an asteroid and use an ion engine (like we have on our Mercury mission BepiColombo) to 'push' the asteroid away.
As for 2 and 3 I think I will not live to see that happening ;-)
What is the process to determine the orbit of a newly discovered asteroid? The process is mathematically quite complex, but here's a short summary.
Everything starts with observations, in particular with measurements of the position of an asteroid in the sky, what we call "astrometry". Discovery telescopes extract this information from their discovery images, and make it available to everybody.
These datapoints are then used to calculate possible trajectories ("orbits") that pass through them. At first, with very few points, many orbits will be possible.
Using these orbits we can extrapolate where the asteroid will be located during the following nights, use a telescope to observe that part of the sky, and locate the object again.
From these new observations we can extract new "astrometry", add it to the orbit determination, and see that now only some of the possible orbits will be compatible with the new data. As a result, we now know the trajectory better than before, because a few of the possible orbits are not confirmed by the new data.
The cycle can then continue, with new predictions, new observations, and a more accurate determination of the object's orbit, until it can be determined with an extremely high level of accuracy.
MM
What are some asteroids that are on your "watchlist"? We have exactly that list on our web portal: http://neo.ssa.esa.int/risk-page
It's called "risk list", and it includes all known asteroids for which we cannot exclude a possible impact over the next century. It is updated every day to include newly discovered asteroids, and remove those that have been excluded as possible impactors thanks to new observations.
MM
the below is a reply to the above
That's quite a list!! Do you guys ever feel stressed or afraid when you have to add another dangerous candidate (and by dangerous I mean those above 200m) is added to this Risk List? Yes, when new dangerous ones are added it's important that we immediately do our best to gather more data on them, observing them with telescopes in order to get the information we need to improve our knowledge of their orbit.
And then the satisfaction of getting the data needed to remove one from the list is even greater!
MM
What inspired you to go into this field of study? I was fascinated by astronomy in general since I was a kid, but the actual "trigger" that sparked my interest in NEOs was a wonderful summer course on asteroids organized by a local amateur astronomers association. I immediately decided that I would do my best to turn this passion into my job, and I'm so happy to have been able to make that dream come true.
MM
this is another reply DVK: I started observing meteors when I was 14, just by going outside and looking at the night sky. Since then, small bodies in the solar system were always my passion.
As a layperson, I still think using nuclear weapons against asteroids is the coolest method despite better methods generally being available. Do you still consider the nuclear option the cool option, or has your expertise in the field combined with the real-life impracticalities made it into a laughable/silly/cliche option? DVK: We indeed still study the nuclear option. There are legal aspects though, the ‘outer space treaty’ forbids nuclear explosions in space. But for a large object or one we discover very late it could be useful. That’s why we have to focus on discovering all the objects out there as early as possible – then we have time enough to use more conventional deflection methods, like the kinetic impactor (the DART/Hera scenario).
It seems like doing this well would require international cooperation, particularly with Russia. Have you ever reached out to Russia in your work? Do you have a counterpart organization there that has a similar mission? DVK: Indeed international cooperation is important - asteroids don't know about our borders! We work with a Russian team to perform follow-up observations of recently discovered NEOs. Russia is also involved in the UN-endorsed working groups that we have, IAWN and SMPAG (explained in another answer).
how much can experts tell from a video of a fireball or meteor? Can you work out what it's made of and where it came from? https://www.reddit.com/space/comments/hdf3xe/footage_of_a_meteor_at_barrow_island_australia/?utm_source=share&utm_medium=web2x If multiple videos or pictures, taken from different locations, are available, then it's possible to reconstruct the trajectory, and extrapolate where the object came from.
Regarding the composition, it's a bit more difficult if nothing survives to the ground, but some information can be obtained indirectly from the fireball's color, or its fragmentation behavior. If a spectral analysis of the light can be made, it's then possible to infer the chemical composition in much greater detail.
MM
I've always wanted to know what the best meteorite buying site is and what their average price is?? DVK: Serious dealers will be registered with the 'International Meteorite Collectors Association (IMCA)' - https://www.imca.cc/. They should provide a 'certificate of authenticity' where it says that they are member there. If you are in doubt, you can contact the association and check. Normally there are rough prices for different meteorite types per gram. Rare meteorites will of course be much more expensive than more common ones. Check the IMCA web page to find a dealer close to you.
Just read through Aidans link to the basaltic rock being used as a printing material for lunar habitation. There is a company called Roxul that does stone woven insulation that may be able to shed some light on the research they have done to minimize their similarity to asbestos as potentially carcinogenic materials deemed safe for use in commercial and residential applications. As the interior surfaces will essentially be 3D printed lunar regolith what are the current plans to coat or dampen the affinity for the structure to essentially be death traps for respiratory illness? At least initially, many of these 3d printed regolith structures would not be facing into pressurised sections, but would rather be elements placed outside and around our pressure vessels. Such structures would be things like radiation shields, landing pads or roadways, etc. In the future, if we move towards forming hermetically sealed structures, then your point is a good one. Looking into terrestrial solutions to this problem would be a great start! - AC
What kind of career path does it take to work in the asteroid hunting field? It's probably different for each of us, but here's a short summary of my own path.
I became interested in asteroids, and near-Earth objects in particular, thanks to a wonderful summer course organized by a local amateur astronomers association. Amateur astronomers play a great role in introducing people, and young kids in particular, to these topics.
Then I took physics as my undergrad degree (in Italy), followed by a Ph.D. in astronomy in the US (Hawaii in particular, a great place for astronomers thanks to the exceptional telescopes hosted there).
After finishing the Ph.D. I started my current job at ESA's NEO Coordination Centre, which allowed me to realize my dream of working in this field.
MM
this is another reply DVK: Almost all of us have a Master's degree either in aerospace engineering, mathematics, physics/astronomy/planetary science, or computer science. Some of us - as MM - have a Ph.D. too. But that's not really a requirement. This is true for our team at ESA, but also for other teams in other countries.
What is the likelihood of an asteroid hitting the Earth In the next 200 years? It depends on the size, large ones are rare, while small ones are much more common. You can check this infographics to get the numbers for each size class: https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2018/06/Asteroid_danger_explained
MM
Have you played the Earth Defence Force games and if you have, which one is your favourite? No I have not played the Earth Defence Force games, but I just looked it up and I think I would liked it. Which one would you recommend?
HG
How close is too close to earth? Space is a SUPER vast void so is 1,000,000 miles close, 10,000,000? And if an asteroid is big enough can it throw earth off its orbit? DVK: Too close for my taste is when we compute an impact probability > 0 for the object. That means the flyby distance is zero :-) Those are the objects on our risk page http://neo.ssa.esa.int/risk-page.
If an object can alter the orbit of another one, we would call it planet. So unless we have a rogue planet coming from another solar system (verrry unlikely) we are safe from that.
How can I join you when I'm older? DVK: Somebody was asking about our career paths... Study aerospace engineering or math or physics or computer science, get a Masters. Possibly a Ph.D. Then apply for my position when I retire. Check here for how to apply at ESA: https://www.esa.int/About_Us/Careers_at_ESA/Frequently_asked_questions2#HR1
How much is too much? DVK: 42 again
Are you aware of any asteroids that are theoretically within our reach, or will be within our reach at some point, that are carrying a large quantity of shungite? If you're not aware, shungite is like a 2 billion year old like, rock stone that protects against frequencies and unwanted frequencies that may be traveling in the air. I bought a whole bunch of the stuff. Put them around the la casa. Little pyramids, stuff like that. DVK: If I remember my geology properly, Shungite forms in water sedimental deposits. This requires liquid water, i.e. a larger planet. So I don't think there is a high chance to see that on asteroids.
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The Binary Book Scam extorted millions from many naive investors and scammed them

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John Campbell's live Question and Answer session Sat 22 Feb 2020.

Posting this here on Reddit because although it would be more useful on YouTube this indexed summary is (probably??) too long to post as a youtube comment. It's also too long for a single Reddit comment.
I found his Q&A to be a good compendium of info but if people want something in particular they shouldn't have to listen to the whole 2.5hrs. The automatic transcript is good but it is not a summary. So I have written this index for you all.
Hopefully this is all accurate and I did not mistype anything, but if you notice an error let me know and I can edit the comment.
----
Index of Dr. John Campbell live chat Sat 22 Feb 2020.
Video time codes in square brackets.

"Live Chat with John, Saturday, 22 Feb, 2020, 19.00 UK time"

(First stream of the Q&A session). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BDhKMZrAbPE

  1. What is happening with the statistics from Latin America and Africa?
[0:04:19]
1a. Have not heard any from Latin America.
1b. Officially there is only one case in Africa.Lots of construction crew traffic between China and African countries.African doctors have emailed John to say there are probably cases there.Diagnostic kits have only just arrived in Africa.

  1. Are infections accelerating?
[0:07:15]
2a. Basically globally yes.
2b. Chinese figures are not accurate, but they report a slowdown in infection rate in China.China has implemented draconian quarantine measures that the West could not easily do. eg forbidding cars.It is probably going to spread to every country.But epidemics cannot rise forever and they naturally peak, and this is happening in Hubei province already.In other parts of China the infection curve is still increasing.The strong quarantine measures are slowing the spread. The most likely effect of this is that the same number will get infected but it will be spread over longer time. Chinese schools are closed.
2c. South Korea is reporting a huge increase in cremations in North Korea. Unknown why.
2d. Vietnam has closed all schools. Areas near China border have been closed.
2e. Some new cases have no clear link to Wuhan. One superspreader from England could be traced to Wuhan. Other cases now have no known link. That is why we are at the start of a pandemic.

  1. Are we faced with mutations of the virus?
[0:15:16]
3a. Some reports from in Iran that the virulence of the disease in Iran is much stronger than in China.Some reports that cause of death of COVID19 cases is viral myocarditis. Can also lead to heart failure.Yes, this could be due to mutation.
3b. It is a single RNA strand which allows it to mutate quickly.If it mutates to be less effective it will die out. But it can evolve the other way.Do not know if this explains the reported Case Fatality Rate difference in Iran.
3c. Having a worse healthcare system in Iran will also increase the CFR.

  1. Would having a previous case of pneumonia make any difference?
[0:20:55]
4a. Mostly people will get rid of pneumonia completely and have no long term harm from it.So just having pneumonia previously, No.
4b. If you have an existing degenerative lung disease, and defective cilia, that prevents pneumonia from being cured.
4c. Asthma inflames the bronchial airways. Their airways are most sensitive, so getting the virus will make their airways inflamed even more than normal.Steroids can reduce immune system effectiveness, and brown inhalers for asthma have steroids, so ask your doctor if yo should continue using the brown inhaler if you get COVID19.

  1. If the virus lives on surfaces for 28 days, why not stop imports?
[0:27:05]
5a. The nearest analogous virus is 2002 SARS, which survived over 5 days at 5°C and not as long at warmer temperatures.
5b. There is probably little risk from packages. Leave it for a month before openning and all the virus particles should be dead. Warm up the package and it should take less time.

  1. I live in Latvia, should I be worried?
[0:29:06]
Yes. This is going to be a pandemic, so it will probably go everywhere.

  1. What is the treatment for viral myocarditis?
[0:29:15]
7a. None. Normally you give an antivrial drug. There is none currently for COVID19.
7b. If you do get it, rest your heart, don't do normal duties.Heart muscle cells do not divide and heal after damage.

  1. Should we take protease inhibitor supplements?
[0:30:51]
No! If anything you would want more enzymes, not less.

Stream interrupted unexpectedly and ends.
Continued in next video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=57fVBsJtwbA
____

____
Index of Dr. John Campbell live chat Sat 22 Feb 2020
Video time codes in square brackets.

"Live Chat with John, Saturday, 22 Feb, 2020, 19.00 UK time"

2nd stream of broadcast. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=57fVBsJtwbA

  1. How is the condition diagnosed?
[0:05:18]
1a. background: Antigens, Antibodies, Immunoglobulin.
1b. There is no antibody test yet, but that is the usual method for other viruses.
1c. PCR amplifies the RNA strand of SARS-CoV-2 (if present). Takes a day to do.

  1. How long is the incubation period?
[0:09:30]
2a. Incubation typically 4 to 6 days.
2b. Quarantine are using between 2 and 14.
2c. At least one documented case of it being 28 days.
2d. Suspected origin of the virus.
[0:11:0]
The virus may have started in a bat, jumped from the bat to another animal,
then jumped from that animal into a human.
The first infected human infected two other people who infected others.(ie- a mostly binary tree of spread).
This gives rise to multiple copies of the virus which during reproduction
may become different serotypes, and so may have different incubation periods.
2e. A recent paper says the virus may be most infectious 3 or 4 days after infection.

  1. What exactly is a pandemic?
[0:15:55]
An epidemic is a large localised outbreak.
Technically, a pandemic is when a disease is on two or more continents.
The WHO only uses "pandemic" to describe viral community spread on multiple continents.

  1. Can the incubation period be as long as 27 days?
[0:18:03]
Yes, cases as long as 28 days.

  1. Antiviral drugs?
[0:18:14]
Remdesivir developed for Ebola, unknown if effective against Covid19.
Doctors sometimes do "compassionate prescribing" which is a guess at what will work.
Randomised controlled trials are being done on different options.

  1. Concern for Italy and Iran?
Yes, it's been spreading there.

  1. What about the possibility of re-infection?
[0:20:06]
Very complicated.
7a. background: Virus triggers antibodies, antibody kills virus. Antibodies should kill virus if it is reintroduced so that "reinfection" (probably meant illness) does not happen.
7b. In other viruses "Antibody-enhanced infection" can occur, where infection by a different strain of the virus can be more severe than if you hadn't been infected with the original virus. eg Dengue A and Dengue B.
7c. Antibody diagram [0:22:29]Normally immune cells will recognise, attack, and kill the virus.Immune cells have "Fc" receptors on their surface which will accept the combined viral particle and antibody. Sometimes this does not kill the virus but attaching to the immune cell helps the virus invade the immune cell, so it destroys the immune cells.In Dengue Fever, making antibodies to Dengue A makes you more susceptible to Dengue B.
7d. Speculation that some young medical staff died because they may have got several serotypesof the virus at same time, which would be more fatal if antibody-enhanced infection occurs.
(transmission interrupted)
7e. Re-infection (of Covid19) is possible but has not been clearly demonstrated.If this happens then we may be stuck with Covid19 for decades.

  1. What about the young doctors that died?
[0:29:20]
Not sure. Possible exacerbating factors are sleep deprivation, concurrent infection
by several types/strains, or other bacteria.

  1. What happens in superspreaders' bodies?
[0:30:43]
Superspreaders are people who spread the disease to a lot of people.
The R_0 is 2.6 on average, but some people can infect far more than 3 people.
They may have lifestyle factors which allow them to infect more people than average.
They shed a lot more virus particles but the biological mechanism is not known.
Possibly their immune system is strong enough to stop illness but not to eradicate the virus.

  1. Has it mutated in Iran to become more deadly?
[0:31:51]
It's possible, but let's hope not.

  1. Are you being censored?
[0:31:57]
I don't know, the computer hasn't done this before.

  1. Is Antibody-dependent enhancement occurring?
[0:32:08]
We don't know.

  1. Pakistan?
[0:32:30]
Lots of daily flights between Pakistan and China, and crowded areas in Pakistan.
Likely that Covid19 is in Pakistan but not confirmed.

  1. What is sequelae?
[0:34:38]
Sequelae are pathological features that persist after the original infection is gone.

  1. What are the methods of spread?
[0:35:42]
15a. Droplets. Big droplets of water in exhaled breath. Spreads over short distance of few metres.This can be directly person-to-person. But droplets also fall onto a surface, touching your mucous membranes after touching the droplets will then infect.
**** [0:36:52]
15b. We now know SARS-CoV-2 is spread in the air. Can be spread in ventilation systems.This is probably why it is spreading quickly.
****
15c. Faeces. Defecating in a public toilet, flushing the toilet aerosolises the virus,and people can touch another surface that the aerosol lands on.
15d. Urine. The virus is expelled in urine. This was discovered today. The urine can be aerosolised during normal urination. Men at urinals especially.Although there is no data, based on above it could spread through sewerage.

  1. Can the virus spread from one apartment to another by air?
[0:39:55]
That's exactly what seems to have happened on the Diamond Princess.
Chinese officials have also said this happens.
There is no medical journal paper which says this yet, but the answer appears to be Yes.

  1. Diabetes?
[0:40:36]
In diabetes the blood sugar goes high.
A macrophage(white cell) will move through tissue to eat viruses.
If there is a lot of sugar in the cell the macrophage can't move easily to get to the virus.
High sugar levels can inhibit the efficiency of the immmune system.
This can happen without diabetes. People with diabetes can manage their sugar level to avoid this.

  1. Can you have H1N1 and SARS-CoV-2 at the same time?
[0:42:32]
18a. Yes. Important to protect ill people from all secondary infections.
18b. You can also get bacterial secondary infection.Virus gets into lining of bronchial tubes, eventually kill them.This leaves gaps in the lining of the tubes, which allows bacteria to get in and live there.This is a use for antibacterial drugs while recovering from a virus.

  1. How can the virus be spreading in Thailand if it cannot survive in warm weather?
[0:47:14]
Seasonality happens in other viruses, such as influenza which doesn't survive well in warm weather.
The virus survives [probably means outside the body] best at 5°C, and about a day at 20°C.
It's killed quickly by the UV in sunshine and by heat.
Warm weather will reduce spread by surface droplet deposits, but not via aerosols.
Australia is very hot this time of year but it could still spread in Australia.

  1. Is SARS-CoV-2 a bioweapon?
[0:49:17]
I don't think so, for two reasons.
If they wanted to they could make one much more effective than this.
Phylogenetic studies show it is probably a natural virus from bats.

  1. How would humidity affect the virus?
[0:50:50]
21a. We don't know.
21b. SARS survived well at low humidity, badly at 50% humidity, and well at high humidity.By analogy, high humidity will not protect you.

  1. Vaccine?
[0:51:45]
Work being done by lots of different places. Many steps to ensure it doesn't make things worse.
Probably be 18 months before it works.
Forget about having a vaccine to stop this first outbreak in 2020.


  1. Why do some coronavirus patients get diarrhoea?
[0:53:18]
In other animals the coronavirus tends to mainly infect the gastrointestinal tract.
In humans it will also sometimes infect the gastrointestinal tract, and in a minority of cases that has been the first visible symptom.
This can mislead diagnosis, and sending patients to an abdominal surgical ward has in the past led to accidental infection of other surgical ward patients with the virus.

  1. Are UK hospitals fully prepared now?
[0:54:54]
The NHS web site says Yes.
If a town has 10,000 people infected, 20% will get severe disease and 5% will be critical.
This would mean 2000 that need oxygen and 500 would need Intensive Care.
A typical hospital could not deliver 2000 oxygen bottles and has no more than 9 ICU beds.
UK hospitals are sometimes unable to cope with normal seasonal flu.
To say the whole NHS is fully prepared is laughable and is not being honest.
Modelling by Imperial College shows 60% of population could get the infection and 30% become sick.

  1. What is your personal opinion of colloidal silver?
[1:00:00]
Silver and iodine kill everything.
I can't possibly see how you would get silver into your lungs to kill viruses and bacteria.

  1. What if you have existing kidney problems like 50% function?
[1:00:00]
The older the person the greater the risk, but no data about kidney function.

  1. What about using medicines to control hypertension.
Long term conditions have to be controlled.

  1. No more news out of Iran?
[1:03:38]
There are six cities that may be closed down.
The elections have meant less infection control than would be desirable.

  1. Is it spread by insects.
[1:05:25]
We don't know. Probably not.

  1. Is this HIV.
No.

  1. Can masks be disinfected with alcohol?
[1:04:52]
A 70% alcohol solution will kill the virus, but it is not a good idea to try this on masks.

  1. Is it possible to get two viruses at the same time?
Yes.

  1. Has SARS1 mutated into SARS-CoV-2 ?
[1:05:35]
No. This is new.
The WHO named the new virus similar to the old 2002 SARS CoV even though it's unrelated.
It causes similar clinical features to the old one.

  1. Can it spread by wind or rain?
Wind, yes.
Rain, no.
[1:11:00] Masks have to fit properly, but they are not of much use outside of hospitals.

  1. What goes wrong when you get this disease?
[1:12:32]
35a. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. The alveoli fill with fluid.
35b. Hypoxaemia, hypoxia, tissue damage.This can be tested with small blood oxygen monitor devices.
35c. Initially it is a dry cough, but it progresses into the pneumonia symptoms and fever.When using electronic temperature sensors the ear is usually more accurate.

  1. Does Vitamin C help?
Taking vitamin C can shorten the duration of some virus types, but very large doses are harmful.
Taking vitamin C can only help if you were unusually deficient in it.
People who live at high latitudes or have dark skin are most likely to be short of vitamin D.

  1. Are there any viruses as contagious as SARS-CoV-2 ?
[1:24:50]
Yes, measles is even more contagious than SARS-CoV-2.

  1. Is the Vitamin D winter-related?
Yes. (less sunlight)
Supplements won't help if you're not malnourished.

  1. Will the Olympics in Japan be cancelled?
[1:24:50]
The epidemic is peaking in Wuhan.
The epidemic will peak in Western countries in 4 months,which will not be a good time to travel.
They may not be on.

  1. Does smoking make a difference?
[1:25:40]
40a. Some data shows smokers get more severe disease.Air pollution in China is probably also a factor.
40b. More men than women have gotten the disease which may be because more men smoke than women.

  1. Why is New Zealand virus-free (of COVID19) ?
[1:26:42]
Because it's an island, but you are not immune to the virus.

  1. Can the virus cause seizures?
[1:26:55]
We saw some early videos of adult people having fits but they were likely bogus.
A fever of 39°C would not cause fitting.
So, No, not as far as I know and it shouldn't.

  1. What is your estimate of how many people will be sick in the UK?
[1:28:10]
About 60% infected in the first year and 30% will be sick.

  1. Oxygen supplements needed?
They will be needed. Not yet needed in the short term.

  1. Should we stop unnecessary travel?
[1:29:08]
Yes.
This has spread by international air travel. It's a pretty short debate.

  1. Advice for immunocompromised people? Like Multiple Sclerosis?
[1:30:00]
MS does not compromise the immune system. But being disabled will make it more difficult to avoid.
Don't open the front door if possible.
Use hand washing, masks, avoid public toilets, use tissues to avoid touching surfaces.
Stop hugging, kissing, shaking hands, touching other people's phones.
Get plenty of sleep and good nutrition.

  1. Timeframe for vaccine.
[1:33:48]
About 18 months (already answered earlier).

  1. Why is Portugal virus-free (of COVID19)?
[1:33:52]
It hasn't got there yet, or cases are not being reported.

  1. Can it affect the brain?
[1:34:04]
Not directly as far as we know.
(water drink break.)
But hypoxia from ARDS/Pneumonia will damage the brain before it damages anything else.

  1. Is 2nd-time infection possible?
[1:35:40 ]
Normally no. If it mutates then Yes.

  1. What about chloroquin?
It been suggested this will help. It's being trialled. We won't know for another 2 weeks.
He would prescribe it now if could help.

  1. Can it live on clothes?
Yes. Normal washing will flush it out.

  1. Can it be spread by exposed fruit and vegetables?
[1:37:49]
Yes.
Cooking will kill the virus.
If viral particles land on an apple, it can be spread by touching the apple (and eating it).
Running soap and water over it will get rid of it.

  1. Will the pneumonia vaccine help?
[1:39:08]
Different types of vaccine to different causes of pneumonia.
This a new virus.
So answer is absolutely not. No protection.

  1. Will HIV medications avoid white cell damage in secondary infection?
[1:40:25]
They are being tested in China.
It's possible but I don't know.
We'll know in 3 weeks.

  1. Can kids be superspreaders?
[1:41:15]
Children under 12 tend to get it less frequently than adults, and get disease less severely.
But children can incubate the virus without feeling ill.
This makes them more likely to be superspreaders.
The answer is Yes.

  1. Cough medicines help cough up mucous from the lungs, does that help with the pneumonia?
No, cough medicines do not do that.
They do not help with pneumonia.
Cough medicines are basically a waste of money.

  1. Would whiskey and honey remedy help?
It will have no beneficial effect whatsoever.

  1. Do nebulisers help?
[1:44:14]
Bronchodilators will help if someone has asthma.
As of now, no drug that can be nebulised will help with SARS-CoV-2.

  1. Can this virus cause cytokine storm?
Yes. Because it can cause sepsis.
White blood cells detect infection and release cytokines.
Cytokines are supposed to travel to other parts of the body to cause various immune responses.
But a lot of cytokines simultaneously will cause Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome.
Sepsis symptoms are high: heart rate, breathing rate, temperature, white blood cells, sugar, lactic acid.
It is rare.

  1. When will it be epidemic in Europe?
[1:48:22]
It's difficult to put dates on this.
(note, he asked not to quote him on this, so I won't transcribe his answer.)

  1. Does Paracetamol weaken the immune system?
[1:49:30]
This drug (and Ibuprofen) lower your temperature.
But the temperature was supposed to be raised because the immune system works best at the higher temperature.
The answer is Yes it does.

  1. Pregancy.
As far as we know there are no adverse effects on pregnancy.
Pregnant women should still try to isolate themselves as much as possible to avoid infection.

End of stream.
submitted by OzJuggler to Coronavirus [link] [comments]

TokenClub Bi-Weekly Report — Issue 114(5.4–5.17)

TokenClub Bi-Weekly Report — Issue 114(5.4–5.17)

https://preview.redd.it/sxiftidp8cz41.png?width=1343&format=png&auto=webp&s=645584b9971068f347f80b63016bf229e45b0bbf
Hello everyone, thank you for your continued interest and support. In the past two weeks, various tasks of TokenClub have been progressing steadily. The product development and community operation progress this week are as follows:
1. TokenClub Events
1)Binance blockchain live streaming program “Block 101” joins TokenClub APP
TokenClub teamed up with Binance “Block 101” to host a series of live broadcast events. In the past two weeks, the big brothers such as the CEO of Feixin, Cobo co-founder Shenyu, and IOST co-founder Terry visited the TokenClub live broadcast room. See live summary. “Block 101” is a live broadcast of dialogues launched by Binance New Media Marketing Team, hosted by Jiayi, Anna, Liuliu, Yingge, Sisi, Qiqi, Doris, etc. Here will invite entrepreneurs in the industry, investment giants, opinion leaders, trading bulls or ordinary people with stories. Every Monday to Friday, with you in the TokenClub live room.

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https://preview.redd.it/qubkprdr8cz41.png?width=690&format=png&auto=webp&s=878a619dc582b7c2bb6d660395be4b350cb74983
2)Participate in poster forwarding, draw red envelope prize
When Bitcoin halves, TokenClub launches a poster forwarding red envelope campaign. On the day of the event, forward the poster to Twitter and the telegram group, and upload a screenshot to have the opportunity to extract the TCT red envelope award ~



3)Participate in live streaming interactive questions and win mysterious gift events
From May 11th to May 15th, TokenClub launched a live question and prize draw event. During the event, watch the block 101 live broadcast and interact with questions during the live broadcast, you will have the opportunity to get a mysterious gift from TokenClub.


https://preview.redd.it/rcx8yett8cz41.png?width=1080&format=png&auto=webp&s=4e2541c0d893e20725c54d76ad96634a79cfb8fd
3)TokenClub’s self-media Bilaoye was invited to participate in AMA
a. On May 7th,Bilaoye was invited by UPChain to conduct an AMA with the theme of “Half Countdown, Where Will the Market Go” in the Chains community. AMA article link:
http://public.tokenup100.com/page/article.html?articleId=f1db8c6bfaa94886bbdd863ec9908252&from=timeline&isappinstalled=0
b. On May 8th, Bilaoye was invited by Golden Finance to conduct an AMA with the theme “Bitcoin Breaks Over US $ 10,000 and Will Do This in Half”. Review link:
https://m.jinse.com/live/topic?id=11813&from=singlemessage&isappinstalled=0
C. On May 14, Bilaoye was invited by Cailu Finance to conduct an AMA with the theme of “Correct Postures for Depositing Money” in the Cailu community.Review link:

https://preview.redd.it/47prnpkv8cz41.png?width=1080&format=png&auto=webp&s=5baa2e06ec09ecdd60adb609bac247333059c016
2.TokenClub Live
1) Summary
Recently, Feng Yuqing, the director of Yicai Global America, the first Chinese reporter to interview Buffett, the organizer & host of the First Financial New York Forum; a world-renowned financial expert, a professor of finance at the Cheung Kong Graduate School of Business, and the director of the finance department -Cao Huining; ARPA founder Felix, SWFT Blockchain one-stop currency exchange cross-chain platform operation in Greater China & BD leader-Ye Fei, mining big man Binxin Mining CEO “Feige”, contract emperor co-founder Xiaoding, AlchemyPay co-founder Shi Xiang, financial expert & first-line trader Xu Zhe, Huobi Key Account Manager-Xiaotong, Roark Group & Bitribe & 499 Block founder sky, Cobo co-founder Shenyu, DappReview CEO Niu Fengxuan, IOST co-founder Terry; and TokenClub blockchain and cryptocurrency investment strategy senior expert-Zao Shen talks with you about the blockchain ~
On May 6, Block 101 Sisi Dialogue Felix, the founder of the hard-core technical team on the blockchain, ARPA Felix, the theme is “The Wall Street Battle of the Wall Street Elite”. In this live dialogue, the resume is dazzling. , The young man who was free to switch between “Yangchun Baixue” and “earthed gas” from the team’s initial heart chat to his investment strategy to the judgment of the entire currency market, his fanaticism of rock seems to explain a series of “adventure” options- — Longing for a more free and innovative world.


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On May 6th, TokenClub invited the one-stop SWFT Blockchain currency exchange cross-chain platform Greater China operation & BD leader-Ye Fei as a guest to “Jingjing at 8 o’clock” live broadcast, bringing us “flash exchange in the future block The theme of “Chain Payment Ecosystem” is shared. Mr. Ye made a detailed interpretation of SWFTC, and revealed the development plan of SWFTC, and exchanged questions and answers with fans enthusiastically.

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On May 7th, Block 101 Luna talked to the CEO of the mining industry, who is most familiar with KTV, Kexin Mining, “Fei Ge”. Liu Fei talked to Bin An Luna, he counted his mining “stepping on the pit road” “, Talking about halving the market and investment experience, talking to the second half, wearing a red Polo shirt, he began to persuade everyone to learn more in the KTV in Beijing at night, and recommended books.


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On May 8, the TokenClub live column-”Professor had an appointment” shared the theme: “BOC crude oil treasure and financial derivatives market”. In this issue, Professor Cao invited the first U.S. Global Director of the United States, the first Chinese reporter to interview Buffett, the organizer & host of the First Financial New York Forum, and Columbia University Master of International Relations Feng Yuqing to share with guests on Chain, digital currency financial derivatives market, etc. have done a detailed exchange analysis.

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On May 8th, block 101 was led by Binance BD’s head Li Jiayi, who talked about contract emperor co-founder Xiao Dingdang. He is an old code farmer who is known for his futures contract operations. He wrote a 10-year code, and the front end Everyone is familiar with it, and it is hard to say anything on the line of speech. Frankly, he talked from his fortune history to the story of the endless number of contract circles, and shared his trading iron law with everyone: there must be a stop loss; must practice more and try more.


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On May 9th, Zaoshen is coming ~ The sharing theme of this issue is: The Yangtze River will push back and forth, and one wave will be more than one wave. Speaking of the “Houlang” hot event, Zao Shen mainly analyzed the halving market with everyone in detail, to see how many opportunities there are and what strategies to choose. Soul asked: How much money did you make in this wave of quotes?


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On May 11, Block 101 was discussed by Binance Qiqi Dialogue AlchemyPay co-founder Shi Xiang, the former vice president of Zhongan Technology and the founder of Micro Index shared with you the experience of dealing with overseas regulators: supervision is not actually strong Groups, regulation will strike you because you are worried about doing bad things, but as long as you are willing to actively communicate, regulation usually gives a tolerance period. For more content, please move to the live room.

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May 12, Exclusive: Huobi Global & Knowing Daniel Interpretation of “Physical Currency, Debt Currency to Encrypted Digital Currency”. The key account manager of Huobi Global has a conversation with financial expert and front-line trader Xu Zhe, talking about physical currency, debt currency and encrypted digital currency. Work is tired enough, the market is already exciting enough, pick Xu Da Tucao various currencies, teach you to return all the money. The value of the young lady’s face is a feeling of emotion.


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On May 12, Block 101 was founded by Binance Thinking, the founder of Roark Group, Bitribe, and 499Block. Sky, a science and technology man from Tsinghua University and MIT, has the title of “Coin Circle Zheng Kai”. Sky said that starting a business in the blockchain industry is like drifting in the turbulent Amazon River. If you do n’t believe that you will eventually reach the sea, you will be thrown off. Sky believes that Bitcoin is essentially a consensus based on time. Halving is like escaping the monsters, and each level increases the consensus.

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On May 13th, Block 101 Luna talked to F2Pool and Cobo co-founder Shenyu, and talked about the “new” story of Bitcoin. Leo ’s Godfish talked to us about the monopoly of computing power, mining pool operations, halving and Cobo ’s future development goals. He said that 80–90% of personal assets are Bitcoin, and about 10% of Ethereum and other Strange coins from mining. It is called “the first segment of the coin circle” because “more pits are filled, so in the end each pit becomes a stalk.”

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On May 14, Niu Fengxuan, CEO of DappReview, talked about “how ordinary people make money through Dapp”. Niu Fengxuan graduated from Fudan and Stanford. He is a serious game enthusiast. He has written many in-depth game evaluations and is an early participant of Dapp. He said that many people think that the biggest application of blockchain is speculation, but the technology ultimately serves products and applications. In the long run, if blockchain can really bring changes and innovations to the world technically, then it must be C-side users should feel it in a more friendly way in other fields.


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On May 15th, Block 101 Yingge talked to IOST co-founder Terry and talked about “The Blockchain Ideal of Princeton Schoolmaster”. Terry told us about his sad history, happy history, and experience and experience of mining from college mining to graduate school to entrepreneurship, talked about the development direction of the blockchain market, and interacted with fans.


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On May 16th, senior expert Zao Shen brought a live broadcast on the theme of “Depth Is Insufficient In Operation, How To Play With Crash”. In this live broadcast, in addition to analyzing the macro level of the economy, Zao Shen also focused on sharing The specific operation skills emphasized the principle of buying and selling, and finally commented on the hot events such as the recent Federal Reserve announcement that it will not fall to negative interest rates.


3.TokenClub operation data
-Live data: 13 live broadcasts in the past two weeks, with over 600,000 views. TokenClub hosted a total of 835 live broadcasts with a total of 44.25 million views.
-Binary trade data: In the past two weeks, guess the rise and fall to participate in a total of 1060 times, the amount of participation exceeded 2 million TCT. At present, it is guessed that the rise and fall function has participated in a total of 1.11 million times, with a cumulative participation amount of 496 million TCT.
-Chat data: In the past two weeks, a total of 28,950 messages have been generated. A total of 4.83 milliom messages have been launched since the function was launched.
-Mini-game data: The mini-game has participated in a total of 7,830 times in the past two weeks. A total of 1,66 million self-functions have been online.
-Cut leeks game data together: Since the game was launched, the total number of user participation in the game was 954,364 TCT total consumption was 6,27 million gift certificate total consumption was 15,53 million and TCT mining output was 160,48.
-TokenClub KOL data: Over the past two weeks, the total reading volume of the BTCGrandpa article has been viewed by more than 300,000 people.
-Social media data: At present, the number of Weibo official accounts is 17,972 and the number of Twitter followers is 1310, and we have opened the official Medium account this week, welcome to follow.
-Telegram official group data: In the past 2 weeks, there were 310 chats in the group, and the total number of Telegram official groups is currently 2971.
-Medium data: Medium official account u/TokenClub has published 1 excellent articles, official announcements and updates are published in English, welcome to follow.
4.Communities
1)Overseas community
TokenClub held an event for forwarding Twitter and telegram group chats for overseas users. Bitcoin halved in less than two weeks, overseas users are more active in the telegram group, and some friends are more concerned about Binance Block 101 live broadcast, aggregation exchange, TCT usage and other issues, the administrator responded in time.On May 12th, when Bitcoin was halved, TokenClub organized a forwarding Twitter, telegram group chat prize event and participating in a live question asking interactive prize event for overseas users. There are many live broadcast events in the near future. The live broadcast poster information will be released to overseas users as soon as possible. The follow-up TokenClub will translate and broadcast high-quality live broadcast content to Twitter and Medium. Bitcoin halved, overseas users are more active in the telegram group, and some partners are more concerned about block 101 live broadcast, bitcoin future price trend, TCT usage and other issues, the administrator responded in time in the group.

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2)Domestic community
Last Friday, a holiday, the community opened the red envelope rain event, and brought a sincere gift to everyone while relaxing in the holiday. At the same time, it also sent the most sincere blessings to all mothers in the community on Mother’s Day. Thank you for your long-term support and help to the Orange Club community.


The third week of the second 100-day fixed investment plan held this week has been awarded. The participation of this event is still quite positive. This week, the bitcoin halving market was also opened in advance. If it starts according to the first day The small partners participating in the fixed investment should now have a certain floating win, so we adopt the correct cycle investment strategy to believe that it can bring unexpected benefits to everyone.


On May 9th and May 16th, TCT Fortune Free Academy carried out red envelope party activities as scheduled. In the event, in addition to GF red envelopes, students were reminded that there may be a callback risk after the pie halving, and short-term profits are available.


On the evening of May 3rd and May 10th, TCT Fortune Free Academy carried out the 51st and 52nd week sign-in sweepstakes, and rewarded the small TCT partners who had always insisted on signing in. In these two sign-in sweepstakes, the lucky friends received 20–180TCT as a reward. In addition, during the lucky draw, the college friends also actively expressed their opinions on the topic of this year’s bull market.

The Leek Paradise Community Conference will continue as usual every Sunday at 20:00. During the conference, members will discuss recent hot topics, including gifts and blessings for Mother ’s Day, and the halving of Bitcoin everyone is paying attention to. At the end, the friends in the group also showed a rare enthusiasm at the first sight. It seems that the market still affects the mood. The members routinely started a red envelope rain to cheer for the participating partners and encourage everyone to maintain patience and confidence. Of course, at the same time, we are encouraging ourselves to see the community meeting next week. Come on!

TokenClub volunteer community, sign in red envelopes every day, as long as you sign in every day, you can get good benefits, friends join us quickly! In the past two weeks, the community has conducted active partners.

TCT has been listed on Binance、Okex、Gate.io、ZB-M、MXC、Biki、Coinex、BigOne、Coinbene、Cybex、SWFT、Loopring、Rootrex etc.
TokenClub website: www.tokenclub.com
Telegram:https://t.me/token\_club
TokenClub App download QR code

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submitted by tokenclubtct to u/tokenclubtct [link] [comments]

Crypto funders your best investors

Crypto Funders is An Online Investment Company that pay investors from their capital Daily.
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Here you have the opportunity to invest and watch your money work and grow for you. Our team of experts who trade In binary options , forex and other crypto assets on daily basis do all the work for you.
PACKAGES Here we have four packages 👉PACK1 ----- 1.5 % Daily for 20 Days 👉PACK 2 ------ 2% Daily for 30 days( Hottest/Popular) 👉PACK 3 ------- 3% Daily for 60 days 👉PACK 4 ------- 7% Weekly
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submitted by Cate_lee to u/Cate_lee [link] [comments]

IQ OPTIONS Review 2020

IQ OPTIONS Review 2020
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IQ Options is a web-based exchanging stage that empowers clients to exchange an assortment of money related instruments and resources, for example, Binary Options, Stocks, Forex and obviously Cryptocurrencies.Established in 2013 and worked by IQ Option Ltd, the website has immediately got one of the quickest developing web-based exchanging stages and claims to have more than 20 million record-holders from around the globe.IQ options are likewise situated in Cyprus and managed in the EU by the Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission (CySec), the organization is completely agreeable with the enactment set forward by the commission and completely approved to offer their items to customers in various purviews.Investigate we walk you through the site and offer our full audit of the administration.
IQ options at a Glance
Broker -IQ OptionsRegulation -CySEC (Cyprus)Minimum Initial Deposit - $10Demo Account - YesResource Coverage - CFDs, ETFs, Forex, Cryptocurrency, Stocks, Indices, CommoditiesLeverage - 30:1 Retail Traders, 1000:1 Professional TradersExchanging Platforms - Proprietary Web, Mobile AppWhat it offersIQ options is a thorough exchanging stage that furnishes its clients with an abundance of choices, and in the wake of beginning as a parallel choices agent, IQ Option presently permits clients to exchange Contracts for Difference (CFDs) on stocks, Cryptocurrencies, Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs), Forex, and a scope of different computerized alternatives.CFD on Stocks – IQ Option permits clients to exchange CFDs on stocks from more than 176 unique organizations, including the best organizations recorded on the NASDAQ and NYSE.Digital currencies – Users can likewise exchange 12 of the top cryptographic forms of money including Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin, Ripple, Monero, Zcash, Omisego, IOTA, and Dash.ETFs – EFT exchanging is a generally new item, and ETFs work by following wares, lists, and bushels of benefits. These can be exchanged a similar route as normal stocks, and dealers can look over around 4288 changed ETFs.Forex – Foreign exchanging, or Forex, is a very well-known exchanging business sector and IQ Option gives access to around 188 cash exchanging sets. This permits clients to exchange their preferred outside monetary forms effortlessly.Alternatives – Users can theorize on the cost of various resources, which incorporate monetary forms, stocks, lists, and wares. The stage as of now gives a portal to [more than 10 million choices.](mailto:[email protected])
History of IQ Option in Numbers
As referenced, the IQ Option was established in 2013. From that point forward, the merchant has developed extensively and remembers explicit figures for its site to help show its development. Beginning with the number of dynamic clients, there were 8,110,000 enrolled clients in 2015, which had about multiplied to 14,680,000 by 2016 and arrived at 25,580,000 of every 2017. This speaks to enrolled client development of an incredible 17 million just somewhere in the range of 2015 and 2017.
Not exclusively did IQ Option have a sweeping development in dynamic clients, however the nations that these dealers were from expanded. In 2014, IQ Option had merchants in 135 nations, developing to 148 nations in 2015, 150 out of 2016, and 151 out of 2017.IQ options additionally record the figures identified with exchanges consistently. Somewhere in the range of 2013 and 2014, the quantity of day by day exchanges expanded by almost multiple times. Somewhere in the range of 2015 and 2017, this figure developed another 2.5 occasions. For those intrigued by points of interest, 2015 had a normal of 646,000 exchanges every day, which expanded to 956,000 by 2016 and 1.8 million by 2017.
IQ options Customer Reviews 2020
Most online surveys from clients of IQ Option are sure, yet there is the intermittent negative audit, as ought not to out of the ordinary. A few objections identify with the way that IQ Option requires KYC methods to check your personality before you pull back assets. Be that as it may, these methods are typical for any intermediary managing fiat money, and even numerous cryptographic money trades require KYC methodology.
A few clients likewise demonstrate that pulling back assets can be trying on occasion with the infrequent issue identified with having a record blocked. In any case, this seems direct to determine and may come down to KYC issues; the surveys are not clear on the reason.
Those surveys that demonstrate objections against IQ Option are consistently sprinkled with positive audits. It additionally appears that a large number of negative surveys posted online are not really from clients. Rather, they are from individuals who guarantee to have had issues as anapproach to advance another assistance. At the point when you take a gander at online surveys from individuals who guarantee to be clients of IQ Option, make sure to think about them while taking other factors into consideration since many are unmistakably from contenders or individuals with ulterior thought processes.
At the point when perused with a basic eye, the general pattern of apparently legitimate surveys of IQ Option from clients is by [all accounts impartial to positive.](mailto:[email protected])
IQ Options Review 2020; Is IQ Option a Scam?

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While doing this survey and looking into others' suppositions on the web, we found various grumblings from individuals considering the website a trick. A few reasons referenced are that they crippled an individual's record which didn't permit them to pull back their parity and a ton of disappointed individuals who appear to have lost cash exchanging on the stage.
Be that as it may, we additionally discovered an overpowering number of constructive remarks about the organization which appears to point that the rare sorts of people who have had issues with them are the more vocal individuals on the web. In our view there is positively no chance this organization can be viewed as a trick, the organization is a firmly directed business with a high-income turnover, official business premises, and excellent site and exchanging programming.
Is IQ Option Safe?
Notwithstanding practices, for example, keeping up isolated records for customer reserves, IQ Option offers security in a few different manners. Obviously, the representative has full SSL encryption. All things considered, all correspondence that dealers send to the representative's servers is scrambled such that meets AES 256 Bit encryption guidelines. That encryption restricts the capacity of programmers to get to data, letting IQ Option supply included insurance of both customer assets and data.
IQ Options 2020 Review Verdict
IQ options is a noteworthy stage that furnishes its clients with a lot of significant worth. The site consolidates a decent degree of straightforwardness and usefulness and clients can be open to realizing that the stage is with regards to the [most recent money related guidelines.](mailto:[email protected])
Exchanging on the site is commonly a significant smooth encounter and the stage uses a natural UI that is anything but difficult to explore. The stage and exchanging application is useful enough for proficient dealers while additionally being sufficiently shortsighted to permit new participants to effortlessly gain proficiency with the exchanging procedure.
IQ options are an organization on the ascent and have developed to overseeing just about 15 million records and preparing 3 million exchanges for every day. The site additionally appreciates an exchanging volume of $11 billion per month and pays out around $5.7 million to its clients on a month to month premise.
The site has its downsides, and clients who require broad cooperation with a client support operator might be unfulfilled by the two record levels. So as to be in reliable correspondence with a customized account supervisor brokers are required to pay a $3000 expense which might be unreasonably prohibitive for a few. The site is likewise ending up being well known with dealers around the globe and notwithstanding IQ Option giving time and vitality to building up its client assistance, there is the likelihood that clients may need to sit tight for over 24 minutes so as to have their questions prepared.
At last, IQ Option isn't accessible to the inhabitants of nations, for example, the United States, Canada, and Japan. These countries are home to huge quantities of monetary educated people and the stage would be in an ideal situation with their essence. Be that as it may, IQ Option despite everything takes into account dealers from more than 178 nations and offers exhaustive assistance to every one of its clients. The stage takes into account stock, Forex, and digital money dealers and people who sign up can make certain to collaborate with an instinctive stage that gives access to an abundance of assets and exchanging alternatives.
How to Recover Money Lost to IQ Option
As consistently with exchanging, you should realize the dangers beforehand – these are unpredictable markets where it is totally conceivable to lose huge aggregates of cash on the off chance that you don't have the foggiest idea what you are doing. Make a point to do your exploration, gain proficiency with the stage back to front and never chance more cash than you can stand to lose. But if you realize you have lost money, you can recover all your lost money back from IQ Options by sending an email to [-[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
submitted by BacklinksSeo73 to u/BacklinksSeo73 [link] [comments]

Updated - Exosquad timeline

Updated - Exosquad timeline
Been hammering away at the timeline of the ExoSquad universe. We now have a decently comprehensive timeline spanning from the year 1999 up through 2109.
Exosquad Timeline
July 24, 1969 - Apollo 11 conducts the first Moon landing on Luna
July 8, 1999 - the existence of a 10th planet beyond the orbit of Pluto is postulated. Despite numerous efforts to confirm the existence of such a planet over the next 100 years, no such planet is identified.
March 10, 2005 - The Sun’s binary sister star, NEMESIS, is discovered. Its elliptical orbit takes it closest to earth every 60 million years. During its last pass, it wiped out the dinosaurs.
August 2, 2009 - First permanent industrial and mining colonies are established on the Moon. Astronauts begin detailed exploration of the other planets.
December 30, 2010 - The year marks several advances in artificial intelligence and biology. The earliest methods of communication between computers and the human brain are developed.
September 27, 2011 - Deep space probes in Neptune orbit detect the first proven transmissions of intelligent life outside of our solar system. Tracking studies indicate that the signals are from a source moving towards earth space.
October 10, 2012 – The first ‘industrial scale’ orbital platform is placed into orbit around earth. Used for a combination of scientific experimentation, energy collection, and interplanetary communication, the platform is designated as “Tinia”.
May 4, 2015 - Large space platforms placed in orbit around Venus and Mars. These platforms are intended to be early precursors to proposed terraforming processes as well as scientific platforms.
June 22, 2019 - Exceptionally rich mineral deposits discovered on Mars - including minerals never before seen.
October 10, 2019 - The Marcus-Vainmoore Enterprises mining branch attempts to short change the Martian mining efforts by launching mining operations in the Asteroid belt.
July 17, 2020 - Exotechnology (Exo-tech) developed. The technology is put to work in large scale industrial projects.
December 10, 2010 - Exo-tech is utilized for Martian excavation.
Dec 2, 2023 - Full-scale terraforming of Venus begins, making extensive use of Exo-tech.
Feb. 14, 2017 - Semi-permanent settlements begin appearing on Venus. Problems are encountered with Martian Terraforming, due to the thin atmosphere and low gravity - early colonists die while support resources, intended to allow colonies to be self-sufficient, have significant difficulty in being maintained in the lower gravity of the planet. The Manned orbital stations, that were previously placed in orbit over Venus and Mars are expanded to support more robust operations with additional resources being put into the Martian platforms in the hopes of augmenting the colonization and terra-forming process. Additional platforms are put into orbit around Mercury.
January 8, 2028 - The Outer Planet Mining Corporation (OPM) is formed for the purpose of harvesting the valuable minerals from the moons of Saturn, and Jupiter. As a “humanitarian effort” the Earth Congress authorizes the usage of convicts as a labor pool in exchange for reduced sentences.
March 15, 2032 - Genetic engineering breakthrough allows manipulation of life forms. “Designer” animals and plant life appear. Serious attempts to begin to develop ‘augmented’ human beings that can endure the rigors of life on Mars and off-world.
April 2, 2032 - The first (OPM) mission is launched to Saturn’s moon Tethys. It is designated as “Charon”.
September 10, 2032 - Charon makes planetfall on Tethys. Over the next year, the mining complex “Charon” is established and built up to support a population of nearly 3,000 convict laborers.
April 5, 2034 - OPM Establishes the mining complex “Cocytus” on Tethys.
May 14, 2036 - OPM mining complex “Elysium” is established on Dione.
June 24, 2036 - Larger deposits are discovered on Tethys. Expansions for the Charon mining complex are set in motion that will be carried out over the next 5 years intended to expand its mining capacity. Its support capacity would ultimately be increased to 5,500 convicts making it the largest of the Saturn Mining complexes.
June 20, 2038 - OPM Mining complex “Phlegethon” is established on Enceladus.
June 2, 2040 - Scientists succeed in creating a new strain of evolutionarily advanced humans known as “Neosapians”.
June 19, 2040 - OPM Mining complex “Lethe” is established on Titan.
December 25, 2042 - OPM Mining complex “Erebus” is established on Tethys.
December 9, 2044 - OPM establishes the last of 7 mining complexes in the Saturn planetary system. This last complex is established on the moon of Dione and is designated “Agensader”. Between the 7 mining complexes, a total population of over 23,000 people is present for mining.
May 5, 2045 - Earth and Venus form the “Home World Senate”. Humans from these two planets become known as ‘TERRANS’. “Zeus Reborn”, a 2-year project to repurpose the Tinia Platform is drafted and put into operation. Its purpose is to re-configure the platform to house the Home World Senate central complex. In the interim, the Senate is housed in Sidney.
June 1, 2047 – “Zeus Reborn” is completed. The Home World Senate officially moves from Sidney Australia to the Tinia Platform.
Jan 4, 2048 - Cloned Neosapiens begin mining and terraforming operations on Mars.
October 4, 2048 – Jeremiah Winfield is born.
November 10, 2048 - With Neosapians mining on Mars, the cost of the various materials drops significantly to the point that OPM is facing bankruptcy. In an effort to maintain itself, OPM cancels all further supply runs and operations of the Saturn mining network. A cover story about “Saturn Madness” is fabricated and spread, convincing the public at large that the convicts have all gone mad, thus no effort to rescue them is made or suggested.
January 1, 2049 - The convicts realize that they have been abandoned. In retaliation, they form the Pirate Clans of Saturn.
January 6, 2055 - the first raids by the Pirate Clans are conducted just outside the Martian orbit. Several Marcus-Vainmoore ships are attacked and their cargo stolen. The crews are left alive but are disfigured. The raids grow in frequency over the next several years.
January 15, 2055 – OPM is re-organized into Outer Planetary Freight, primarily a shipping company. Abandoning much of their mining background and ambitions.
January 30, 2060 – Exo-tech is tested for use in military applications.
January 1, 2061 – The Home Worlds Senate passes the Extra-Terrestrial Armed Services decree, formally establishing a unified military force that supersedes the authority of individual armies and is under the direct authority of the Home Worlds Senate. This military is colloquially known as ‘ETAS’. The Extra-Terrestrial Operations Network (ETON) is established and integrated into the Home Worlds senates communications hub. This advent gives ETAS access to all the satellite data available to the Home Worlds Senate itself and allows the Senate to more directly control ETAS.
May 1, 2061 – The Exo-Tech development for military applications shows progress. The first star fighters to be fitted with the cyber-link data processing system giving the pilots greater depth of input to the fighter itself. The XAF-221 Badger becomes the first ‘exo-fighter’.
October 10, 2061 – The Great Neosapians Birthing Complex is completed on Mars. Accelerated growth and intra-cranial organo-educated implants produce 25,000 Neosapien adults each Martian month, totaling 300,000 per year.
December 10, 2061 – Neosapian brood Sci-Alpha-Tau 21699 is completed. This brood includes Phaeton and Marsala.
January 19, 2062 – Marsala is appointed as the Production Coordinator for the 3rd Sector of Martian Mining operations, the single largest on Mars.
August 25 2065 - Population of Neosapiens increase rapidly. Mars is predominantly populated by these advanced humans.
December 2, 2065 - Unrest begins on Mars in the wake of Home World Senate’s decision that ‘artificial’ life forms don’t have the rights of other “natural” humans. Neosapiens demand home rule.
January 10, 2068 – Jeremiah Winfield enlists with ETAS.
October 10, 2070 – Inspired by Marsala, the great Neosapian rebellion begins. Systematic sabotage slows Martian mining as Marsala calls for negotiations with the Home Worlds congress. The majority of these transmissions go unanswered only serving to further fuel the rebellion. Marcus-Vainmoore Communications is harshly criticized for it’s maintaining of the communications network leading some to believe that the ‘lack of communications’ from the Neosapians is deliberate.
October 18, 2070 - Marcus-Vainmoore mining attempts to capitalize on the crisis by upping their mining efforts in the asteroid belt. They establish permanent supply stations and support centers on several of the largest asteroids including Ceras, Vesta, Eros, Bennu, and Juno. Utilizing their political influences, they successfully lobby to have the ETAS’ patrol routes set to include the Asteroid field in order to protect their assets. It is widely suggested that this is done with the ulterior motive of allowing the Neosapian rebellion to continue.
February 11, 2071 – Matthew Marcus is born.
April 12, 2071 – The Neosapians rebellion intensifies, bringing all mining on mars to a halt. Even with the increased mining from the Asteroid belt, the Home Worlds economy begins to collapse.
June 10, 2071 – The Exo-Tech development program brings the concepts of cyber-links and exo-skeletons together, allowing the designers to create vehicles with the fire power of a tank, but the control options and benefits that had made the XAF-221 Badger so popular. These are the direct precursors to the “Exo-Frames”. Jeremiah Winfield becomes the leader of one of the first ‘E-frame Squads’ designated “Blue Alpha”.
August 1, 2071 – the ETAS puts in a substantial order for the new “Exo-Frames” as works to modernize its forces. The “E-frame” becomes so synonymous with the ETAS, that the organization comes to be known as the “Exo-Fleet”. As the Exo-Fleet develops, more and more state-based militaries are either absorbed into it, or simply dissolved as they are viewed as being redundant and unneeded.
November 1, 2071 – Exo-Fleet is called on to quell the Martian Rebellion.
November 6, 2071 – The Exo-Fleet moves into controlling orbit of Mars and begins conducting lightning raids against Neosapain held locations. The newly formed “E-frame Squads” prove devastatingly effective.
November 13, 2071 – Marsala is captured by Blue Alpha and the rebellion is broken. Calls for Marsala to be tried for leading the rebellion are made. Legal counsel offers a motion that because Marsala is not a “Natural Born” he is not entitled to a trial for his actions, but likewise cannot be held accountable for them any more than a dog that is beaten by its owner can be held accountable when it attacks someone. The Companies that had financed and controlled the mining operations on Mars are put on trial for the Rebellion.
December 1, 2071 – with the recent success of the E-frame tactics, previous plans for the Exo-fleet are scrapped. Ship orders are canceled in favor of some form of not yet designed ‘Exo carrier’ and more emphasis is placed on the utilization of E-frames.
January 10, 2074 – The trials of the Martian mining companies are completed. There are numerous fines and jail sentences passed down as it is determined that the business practices and operations of the Martian Mining companies lead directly to the rebellion and the effects on the Home Worlds’ economy that caused. The Neosapians are granted custodial control of Mars.
March 5, 2074 – Several groups begin campaigning for Neosapians to be allowed to join the Exo-Fleet. These demands are presently ignored.
Sept 2, 2076 - Neosapiens allowed to sit on the Home World Senate primarily as observers only. For matters of official status, their delegate is given a ‘non-voting’ seat.
February 28, 2086 - Despite Neosapian protest, approval is given to build another massive Excavation project in the southern hemisphere of Mars.
March 12, 2089 - Homeworld Senate rejects Neosapien bid for complete autonomy.
March 14, 2089 – The Home Worlds Senate approves the “Exo-Carrier Construction program”, a combination development, test-bed, and construction program intended to modernize the Exo-Fleet, cut down on costs by developing purpose built ships, and to replace the currently 60 year old ship designs presently utilized by the Exo-Fleet.
April 4, 2092 - The Neosapien leader Phaeton becomes spokesman for the Neosapien population of mars in their disputes with the Terrans.
April 12, 2092 – The Home Worlds Senate approves the Yumoto class Exo-cruiser. Ships to come out of this class include the Bismarck, and Sakura.
May 20, 2093 – The Home Worlds Senate approves the Kuznetsov-class Exo-carrier. Ships to come out of this class include the Borealis.
October 10, 2094 – The Home Worlds Senate approves the Helgoland-class Exo-carrier. Ships to come out of this class include the Coronado.
June 1, 2099 – The Home Worlds Senate approves the Resolve-class Exo-carrier. Ships to come out of this class include the Dominion, and Sovereign.
May 15, 2100 – The HWS Bismarck is launched
October 30, 2100 – the HWS Sakura is launched.
December 1, 2100 – The Home Worlds Senate Approves the Resolute variant of the Resolve class of Exo-carriers and orders one to become the new flagship of the Exo-fleet.
May 15, 2016 – The HWS Dominion is launched. It is temporarily named the Exo-fleet flagship.
May 15, 2107 – The HWS Borealis is launched.
October 30, 2107 – the HWS Coronado is launched.
May 10, 2108 – The Home Worlds Senate passes the ETAS Militarization prioritization decree cutting back on weapons and military-type hardware that can be possessed by non-military operations. The Neosapiens are very specifically mentioned as not being permitted to possess any form of military hardware.
October 19, 2108 - Neosapiens protest the ETAS Militarization prioritization decree as it is being applied to include industrial-scale transport systems under the idea of “military hardware”. This forces the Neosapians to rely on the transport options provided by the likes of Marcus-Vainmoore, Outer Planetary Freight, and the Martian Mining Conglomerate.
November 18, 2109 – In an effort to appease the Neosapian and lessen tensions, the Home Worlds Senate passes the ETAS Combined Arms decree, permitting a limited number of Neosapians to enlist with the Exo-Fleet. Marsala immediately enlists and it is permitted, both for political reasons and for the belief that if he’s kept isolated from the Neosapiens at large, it’s less likely that the could start a second rebellion.
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