How to delete the bitcoin blockchain from your computer
Bitcoin - P2P Foundation
Blockchain Dictionary for Newbies
Blockchain Glossary: From A-Z 51% Attack When more than half of the computing power of a cryptocurrency network is controlled by a single entity or group, this entity or group may issue conflicting transactions to harm the network, should they have the malicious intent to do so. Address Cryptocurrency addresses are used to send or receive transactions on the network. An address usually presents itself as a string of alphanumeric characters. ASIC Short form for ‘Application Specific Integrated Circuit’. Often compared to GPUs, ASICs are specially made for mining and may offer significant power savings. Bitcoin Bitcoin is the first decentralised, open source cryptocurrency that runs on a global peer to peer network, without the need for middlemen and a centralised issuer. Block Blocks are packages of data that carry permanently recorded data on the blockchain network. Blockchain A blockchain is a shared ledger where transactions are permanently recorded by appending blocks. The blockchain serves as a historical record of all transactions that ever occurred, from the genesis block to the latest block, hence the name blockchain. Block Explorer Block explorer is an online tool to view all transactions, past and current, on the blockchain. They provide useful information such as network hash rate and transaction growth. Block Height The number of blocks connected on the blockchain. Block Reward A form of incentive for the miner who successfully calculated the hash in a block during mining. Verification of transactions on the blockchain generates new coins in the process, and the miner is rewarded a portion of those. Central Ledger A ledger maintained by a central agency. Confirmation The successful act of hashing a transaction and adding it to the blockchain. Consensus Consensus is achieved when all participants of the network agree on the validity of the transactions, ensuring that the ledgers are exact copies of each other. Cryptocurrency Also known as tokens, cryptocurrencies are representations of digital assets. Cryptographic Hash Function Cryptographic hashes produce a fixed-size and unique hash value from variable-size transaction input. The SHA-256 computational algorithm is an example of a cryptographic hash. Dapp A decentralised application (Dapp) is an application that is open source, operates autonomously, has its data stored on a blockchain, incentivised in the form of cryptographic tokens and operates on a protocol that shows proof of value. DAO Decentralised Autonomous Organizations can be thought of as corporations that run without any human intervention and surrender all forms of control to an incorruptible set of business rules. Distributed Ledger Distributed ledgers are ledgers in which data is stored across a network of decentralized nodes. A distributed ledger does not have to have its own currency and may be permissioned and private. Distributed Network A type of network where processing power and data are spread over the nodes rather than having a centralised data centre. Difficulty This refers to how easily a data block of transaction information can be mined successfully. Digital Signature A digital code generated by public key encryption that is attached to an electronically transmitted document to verify its contents and the sender’s identity. Double Spending Double spending occurs when a sum of money is spent more than once. Ethereum Ethereum is a blockchain-based decentralised platform for apps that run smart contracts, and is aimed at solving issues associated with censorship, fraud and third party interference. EVM The Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) is a Turing complete virtual machine that allows anyone to execute arbitrary EVM Byte Code. Every Ethereum node runs on the EVM to maintain consensus across the blockchain. Fork Forks create an alternate version of the blockchain, leaving two blockchains to run simultaneously on different parts of the network. Genesis Block The first or first few blocks of a blockchain. Hard Fork A type of fork that renders previously invalid transactions valid, and vice versa. This type of fork requires all nodes and users to upgrade to the latest version of the protocol software. Hash The act of performing a hash function on the output data. This is used for confirming coin transactions. Hash Rate Measurement of performance for the mining rig is expressed in hashes per second. Hybrid PoS/PoW A hybrid PoS/PoW allows for both Proof of Stake and Proof of Work as consensus distribution algorithms on the network. In this method, a balance between miners and voters (holders) may be achieved, creating a system of community-based governance by both insiders (holders) and outsiders (miners). Mining Mining is the act of validating blockchain transactions. The necessity of validation warrants an incentive for the miners, usually in the form of coins. In this cryptocurrency boom, mining can be a lucrative business when done properly. By choosing the most efficient and suitable hardware and mining target, mining can produce a stable form of passive income. Multi-Signature Multi-signature addresses provide an added layer of security by requiring more than one key to authorize a transaction. Node A copy of the ledger operated by a participant of the blockchain network. Oracles Oracles work as a bridge between the real world and the blockchain by providing data to the smart contracts. Peer to Peer Peer to Peer (P2P) refers to the decentralized interactions between two parties or more in a highly-interconnected network. Participants of a P2P network deal directly with each other through a single mediation point. Public Address A public address is the cryptographic hash of a public key. They act as email addresses that can be published anywhere, unlike private keys. Private Key A private key is a string of data that allows you to access the tokens in a specific wallet. They act as passwords that are kept hidden from anyone but the owner of the address. Proof of Stake A consensus distribution algorithm that rewards earnings based on the number of coins you own or hold. The more you invest in the coin, the more you gain by mining with this protocol. Proof of Work A consensus distribution algorithm that requires an active role in mining data blocks, often consuming resources, such as electricity. The more ‘work’ you do or the more computational power you provide, the more coins you are rewarded with. Scrypt Scrypt is a type of cryptographic algorithm and is used by Litecoin. Compared to SHA256, this is quicker as it does not use up as much processing time. SHA-256 SHA-256 is a cryptographic algorithm used by cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin. However, it uses a lot of computing power and processing time, forcing miners to form mining pools to capture gains. Smart Contracts Smart contracts encode business rules in a programmable language onto the blockchain and are enforced by the participants of the network. Soft Fork A soft fork differs from a hard fork in that only previously valid transactions are made invalid. Since old nodes recognize the new blocks as valid, a soft fork is essentially backward-compatible. This type of fork requires most miners upgrading in order to enforce, while a hard fork requires all nodes to agree on the new version. Solidity Solidity is Ethereum’s programming language for developing smart contracts. Testnet A test blockchain used by developers to prevent expending assets on the main chain. Transaction Block A collection of transactions gathered into a block that can then be hashed and added to the blockchain. Transaction Fee All cryptocurrency transactions involve a small transaction fee. These transaction fees add up to account for the block reward that a miner receives when he successfully processes a block. Turing Complete Turing complete refers to the ability of a machine to perform calculations that any other programmable computer is capable of. An example of this is the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM). Wallet A file that houses private keys. It usually contains a software client which allows access to view and create transactions on a specific blockchain that the wallet is designed for.
All governments, however, are firmly resolved not to relinquish inflation and credit expansion. They have all sold their souls to the devil of easy money. It is a great comfort to every administration to be able to make its citizens happy by spending. For public opinion will then attribute the resulting boom to its current rulers. The inevitable slump will occur later and burden their successors. It is the typical policy of après nous le déluge. Lord Keynes, the champion of this policy, says: “In the long run we are all dead.”But unfortunately nearly all of us outlive the short run. We are destined to spend decades paying for the easy money orgy of a few years. Inflation is essentially antidemocratic. Democratic control is budgetary control. The government has but one source of revenue— taxes.No taxation is legal without parliamentary consent. But if the government has other sources of income it can free itself from this control. If war becomes unavoidable, a genuinely democratic government is forced to tell the country the truth. It must say: “We are compelled to fight for our independence. You citizens must carry the burden. You must pay higher taxes and therefore restrict your consumption.” But if the ruling party does not want to imperil its popularity by heavy taxation, it takes recourse to inflation.
Never forget why we are here. For those of you who are new and wonder why we need Bitcoin, I urge you to read a book on Austrian Economics. Economics in One Lesson by Henry Hazlitt is what got me started. If you understand real economics, you will get a huge advantage in this life. Suddenly you will understand politics and the world around you on a whole other level. Even Keynes, who wasn't a very bright guy, understood that inflation has terrible consequences. The rich get richer and buy off the ruling class, creating a negative spiral and a road to serfdom. It is socialism for the rich. Lord Mises and FA Hayek crushed Keynes arguments over and over and all he could say was "In the long run we are all dead". Edit: added link
Why Bitcoin and Tulip Mania are two vastly different, and entirely unrelated, phenomena: a comprehensive analysis
I keep seeing all these comparisons of Bitcoin to tulip mania, such as in this extremely inaccurate chart Convoy investments recently published. It’s a bunch of bullshit. Bitcoin is about as far from 17th century tulip bulbs as you can get so I’m gonna debunk this claim right now. Here are the facts —
This chart only goes back to 3 years before the “bubble peak.” If they’re talking about now being the peak, it would start at 2014. Bitcoin was founded in 2009 & experienced its first “bubble” if you will, in 2013.
Bubbles do not typically burst and then come back. Tulip bulb prices crashed once and it was over. That’s why this chart conveniently left out the pre-2014 era.
This chart puts the value of bitcoin in 2014, using its Y axis label “multiple of starting price” at next to 0. Bitcoin started at less than a dollar. Its value in 2014 was in the hundreds of dollars.
It is not known exactly how long tulip mania lasted as there is no data available from February of 1637 to the beginning of may. Low estimates for its duration fall around 3 months. At the highest estimate, it may have lasted 6 months (Source) Convoy’s chart incorrectly depicts the tulip boom as almost a full year long.
Bitcoin on the other hand, has been around for 8 years. In Jan 2018 it’ll be 9. Let’s disregard this for a sec, lets play devils advocate and look only at bitcoin’s latest increase which began around March 2017 (Source) It consistently began hitting ATHs back in March of this year, and gained even more traction later on from June-July. So, disregarding everything else Bitcoin’s current meteoric rise has already lasted approx 9 months, which is longer than the rise, peak and collapse of tulip bulbs altogether. Let me point out here that Convoy got the dates for tulip mania wrong as well! it lasted from late 1636- early 1637, not 1619-1622.
Tulips are not scarce. People can plant tulips and collect bulbs all they want. Bitcoin is inherently scarce. 21 million bitcoins - and only 21 million - can ever be made. That’s it.
Tulips are irrelevant. Investors invested in them regardless of what they were, to make a quick buck. They could have been daisies or pigeons or lumps of rock. This brings us to:
Tulip prices were doomed to crash from the start because they had no intrinsic value. Investments were made in them ONLY because investors thought the price was going to go up, and that was it. Bitcoin, on the other hand, has intrinsic value as a currency and as a technology. People think the price will go up, yes; this part can be labeled speculative and it does add fuel to the spaceship. However, the difference is that there are real solid reasons for its price increase.
An asset price cannot increase forever based on speculation alone, but if the asset has inherent value, then its price sure can continue to increase. If we look at the Apple stock chart from 1980 to 2012, we can see a pattern that’s actually quite similar to Bitcoin’s rise. Was Apple a bubble? Did it burst? No and no. But Michael Dell once made fun of Apple for “trying to be a company”. And nobody knows who Michael Dell is anymore. Bitcoin is not Tulip Mania. That is all. Edit: thanks joecoin for linking me to a compelling article from Smithsonian Mag. This source makes a very convincing argument that tulip mania never actually happened. I figured I should point this out, because the facts are all important to me. That being said, the concept of tulip mania remains, and there are people who try likening it to bitcoin as if the two are any more similar than apples and oranges. Those people are wrong. :)
The evolution of Distributed Ledger Technologies - Part 1
Understanding really something means that you need to look at how it was created and how it has evolved. Blockchain technology was not created out of nowhere or overnight from an anonymous crazy inventor called Satoshi Nakamoto, as some may believe. It was the outcome of collective human innovation through a very strange set of circumstances that would set the setting stone for a new decentralized movement and a new and better concept of money. To grasp ahold of the origin of Bitcoin and the Distributed Ledger Technologies, or plainly laid out “Blockchain” in modern online literature, one has to look at the history and the combined influence of 4 elements, Cryptography, Open Source Software, Peer to Peer Sharing Networks, Crypto-Economics.
Part 1 - Introduction to Cryptography
Cryptography is about solving the problem of transmitting information fast, securely and covertly to an audience. The problem arose as new technology increased the potential of communication and the danger from information being stolen. In the 1930s and during the World War II encryption and cryptography boomed as a result of military research and development, that would provide a competitive advantage and eventually greatly assist by breaking almost every German and Japanese code. Formal information security and electronic surveillance organizations would then be born and continue to this day, such as the NSA. Military Enigma machine, model \"Enigma I\", used during the late 1930s and during the war; displayed at Museo scienza e tecnologia Milano, Italy. Pioneering cryptographers were James Ellis and Clifford Cocks with their public key encryption idea. An encrypted message would contain the key that would enable unlocking the encryption, however the idea was not at that point feasible as it entailed a public communications network such as the internet as a foundation. These systems were not yet available to the public in the 1970s. Additionally, David Chaum, was the first to propose cryptocurrency in 1983, in a paper called “Numbers can be a better form of cash than paper” as well as other ideas like untraceable electronic mail, digital signatures and digital secret identities.
The Rise of the Cypherpunks
With the emergence of the internet, by the 1990s’ a new movement called Cypherpunks was born. These people wanted to use the encryption tools developed by the military-industrial complex to protect individuals and their privacy. In early 1991, a U.S. Senate legislation had a proposal that would force electronic communications service providers to hand over individuals’ private messages. A little known programmer called Phil Zimmerman decided to develop a tool that would help individuals freely communicate on the internet. Concerned that the American government would soon require service providers to turn over its users’ communications, Phil developed the free software known as Pretty Good Privacy, or PGP, so that individuals could encrypt the contents of their own messages, texts and files. PGP quickly became the world’s most popular email-encryption software and one of the world’s first examples of public key encryption to gain any kind of widespread adoption. It was notably used by Edward Snowden to secretly transfer classified documents from the NSA to journalist Glenn Greenwald in 2012. NSA whistle-blower Edward Snowden in a still image taken from video during an interview. In late 1992, Eric Hughes, Tim May and John Gilmore invited twenty of their closest friends to an informal meeting to discuss programming and cryptographic issues. This meeting was then held monthly at John Gilmore’s company, Cygnus Solutions and as the group grew they decided to setup a mailing list to reach other people elsewhere and the Cypherpunks were already growing in numbers. The ideas and concepts shared in this mailing list varied from cryptography, mathematics, computer science and political as well as philosophical debates, with privacy being one of the main founding principles.
“Privacy is necessary for an open society in the electronic age. Privacy is not secrecy. A private matter is something one doesn’t want the whole world to know, but a secret matter is something one doesn’t want anybody to know. Privacy is the power to selectively reveal oneself to the world.”
Early attempts of anonymous transaction systems that would introduce game theory and incentivised behaviour, was the Hashcash in 1997, by Dr. Adam Back, which was a system to prove that some computational power was spent to create a stamp in the header of an email, acting as an anti-spam mechanism, a concept that might sound familiar to the proof of Work use in Bitcoin. In 1998, Wei Dai published his proposal for B-Money, which included two methods of maintaining transaction data, one in which all participants hold a separate database or ledger and a second in which a specific group only holds the database and are incentivized to act honestly as they have deposited their own money into a special account and stand to lose it by acting dishonestly, also known as the “Proof of Stake” method. Ethereum is one of the cryptocurrencies considering to move to this method of transaction verification since it provides efficiency benefits. In 2004, Hal Finney created the Reusable Proofs of Work based on the principles of Hashcash, which were unique cryptographic tokens you could only spend once, but were limited to validation and protection against double spending from a central server. In 2005 Nick Szabo gave his own proposal for BitGold, a system which units would be valued differently based upon the amount of computational work performed to create them. https://preview.redd.it/kx6psm0vfgj11.jpg?width=1067&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=3d72dc76341c76dc671a0f6e46f9a98acc6d0179 Finally, in 2008, Satoshi Nakamoto, a pseudonym for a still-unidentified individual or individuals, published the bitcoin whitepaper, citing both hashcash and b-money, addressing many of the problems that the earlier developers had faced, including double spending. The bitcoin white paper attracted a lot of criticism from sceptics, but Satoshi moved on despite the critics and mined the genesis block of Bitcoin on 3rd of January 2009. See you in the nextarticle! I think that’s enough condensed knowledge for one article. In the following article we’ll look at Open Source Software and study its influence in the development of Blockchain Technologies.
“Bitcoin enables certain uses that are very unique. I think it offers possibilities that no other currency allows. For example the ability to spend a coin that only occurs when two separate parties agree to spend the coin; with a third party that couldn’t run away with the coin itself.” – Pieter Wui (66 points, 14 comments)
There have been many attempts at creating a digital currency during the 90s tech boom, with systems like Flooz, Beenz and DigiCash emerging on the market but inevitably failing. There were many different reasons for their failures, such as fraud, financial problems and even frictions between companies’ employees and their bosses. Notably, all of those systems utilized a Trusted Third Party approach, meaning that the companies behind them verified and facilitated the transactions. Due to the failures of these companies, the creation of a digital cash system was seen as a lost cause for a long while. Then, in early 2009, an anonymous programmer or a group of programmers under an alias Satoshi Nakamoto introduced Bitcoin. Satoshi described it as a ‘peer-to-peer electronic cash system.’ It is completely decentralized, meaning there are no servers involved and no central controlling authority. The concept closely resembles peer-to-peer networks for file sharing.
This is an open thread to discuss items of interest. I may also use it to drop thoughts as they occur to me as well -- something of a replacement of my former "tab closure" posts, as ... well, it seems tabs are simply running away from me. Consider this an experiment that's been mulling for some time. If you've got a question, observation, link, or anything else, feel free to post it, with a thought to the lair rules -- like house rules, but larrier. An evolving conversation....
The patient continued, “You understand that the many tests and the elusive information of the recent weeks remind me of Franz Kafka's words in his famous work Der Prozess, meaning both trial and process.” “The verdict does not come suddenly, proceedings continue until a verdict is reached gradually.”
I am looking for tools to make sense of HTML DOMs
On nuclear power and safety
There's an article making the rounds, poorly argued, IMO, extolling nuclear energy. I've been heartened by the critical response it's triggered at Hacker News, including my own contribution, previously submitted at G+ on Joerg Fliege's thread, drawing comparisons to the Banqiao Dam disaster of 1975. In part:
Proponents of nuclear power assume that we can assess risks with tails not of the decade or so of Banqiao, but of 100, 1,000, 1 million years. Utterly outside the scope of any human institutions, or of the human species itself. Our models of risks and of costs fail us.... The problems with nuclear power are massive, long-tailed, systemic and potentially existential. The same cannot be said of a wind farm or solar array. There is no significant 10,000 year threat from wind power, or solar power. We're not risking 30 - 60 km exclusion zones, on an unplanned basis, of which we've created at least four in the half-decade of significant nuclear energy applications: Hanford, Washington, Three Mile Island, Pennsyvania, Chernobyl, Ukraine, and Fukushima, Japan. And this is with a global plant of some 450 operating nuclear power plants as of 2017.... If the total experience has been, say, 500 reactors, over 50 years, or 25,000 reactor-years of experience, and we've experienced at least four major disasters, then our failure rate is 0.016%. The global share of nuclear power generation in 2012 was about 10%. Which means that without allowing for increased electrical consumption within existing or extending to developing nations, the plant count would have to increase tenfold. Holding the reactor-year failure rate constant would mean 80 core meltdowns per century. Reducing that to the present rate of four meltdowns/century would require reducing the failure rate to 0.0008%. That's five nines, if anyone's counting. Five nines on a process involving weather, politics, business, social upheaval, terrorism, sabotage, individual psychology, group psychology, climate, communications, response, preparedness....
David Gerard at the Financial Times on Bitcoin and Blockchain
David Gerard, author of Attack of the 50 Foot Blockchain, interviewed by Izabella Kaminska about Bitcoin, /Buttcoin, and Tulips, among other topics. There's a bunch of great information in this podcast, of which I'll highlight two items in particular. I've been reflecting a great deal on information, truth, and that boundary between information and belief, most principally trust. Gerard nails the value proposition of trust, and a problem with the Free All the Things trope of decentralisation:
Decentralisation is the paramount feature in bitcoin, but it turns out that that's a bad idea that's really, really expensive, because it turns out that a tiny bit of trust saves you a fortune. "Decentralised" isn't a useful buzzword in a lot of ways, because it turns out that you want to be a part of society.
He also points at the invalidity of market capitalisation as a concept. It's an arithmetically inexpensive value to obtain (multiply total quantity by present price), but, especially in the thin markets typical of Bitcoin, it is essentially a fantasy value with no real meaning. From a conversation at The Other Place:
[C]rypto "market cap" is a meaningless number. Even on Bitcoin, the most popular one, about 100 BTC will clear the order book on any exchange. Crypto "market cap" is not a number you could realise, it's not how much money went into it, it's not anything useful. If you want to compare cryptos by interest, you'd need to measure daily trading volumes, which is a harder number to gather, and market cap doesn't turn out to be a good proxy for it. So billions of dollars in free money weren't actually just created - instead it's millions of tokens that may or may not be tradeable for ordinary bitcoins or for cash, if you don't go very fast at all.
This evokes my own explorations of cost, price, and value, and what exactly they mean. One analogy that Gerard, Alex Kudlick, and I are leaning toward is that of electric circuits. Price is analogous to pressure, or potential (voltage). Volume would be current. This raises the question of what resistance, capacitance, and impedance would have as analogues.... FT: Attack of the 50 Foot Blockchain with David Gerard (Soundcloud: 65 minutes). Highly recommended. And you'll find Gerard on Reddit as dgerard.
Yonatan Zunger on the evolution of U.S. "court costs"
In "The history of “court costs”", Zunger writes of "a system that [you might think] has gone out of control, a mechanism that started with a good purpose that got eaten by corruption and incompetence. But you would be wrong."
In the post-Civil War South, a system came up when plantations, factories, or mines needed workers. It was based on that clever little exception in the 13th Amendment:
Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
Note that it doesn’t say what kind of crime you have to be convicted of.
The short of it: slavery is not illegal in the United States, just somewhat regulated. My own main commentary ... probably worth posting in its own right, is that whilst Zunger raises excellent points about the intentionality of this system and its antecedents to Nazi Germany's concentration camps, the fact is that none of these phenomena are particularly American, nor particularly new. This isn't to excuse the United States of its guilt. Rather: these behaviours, systems, and dynamics seem to be deeply rooted. Whether they're merely cultural (the examples I've given are all from cultural antecedants or siblings to US tradition), part of human behavioral psychology, or deeper even than that, this is not simply a matter of bad laws and bad people. Rather: It is a case of such rules and dynamics actively succeeding and crowding out alternatives. There are two good discussions at The Other Place from the original Tootstorm and from the Medium essay.
When your political opponents are made of money ...
In politics, a growing problem is the dominance of interests who apparently have nothing but money to throw at problems Utilising this fact in judo fashion, the thought occurs that that one possible response is to create a vast wall of problems for which they find it necessary to throw money at. The less ease with which to discern between actual problems and fantasmic simaculra of problems, so much the better. Have fun storming the castle!
Bill Browder: "It turned out that in Putin's Russia, there are no good guys."
In what one senator called one of the Senate Judiciary Committee's "most important" hearings, [William] Browder, a wealthy businessman-turned-activist-turned Putin-adversary shed a chilling new light on a Russian system of government that operates ruthlessly in the shadows — as Browder described it for lawmakers: a "kleptocracy" sustained by corruption, blackmail, torture and murder with Putin at its center. "Effectively the moment that you enter into their world," Browder told senators investigating Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election, "you become theirs."
Oh, and "Russian adoptions" are one of the dog whistles for the Magnitsky Act, legislation passed in the U.S. in 2012, named after Browder's now-murdered Russian lawyer, Sergei Magnitski, imposing sanctions on human-rights violators. Also the topic of a certain July, 2016 meeting featuring Donald Trump, Jr., and senior members of the Trump campaign, of recent memory.
The distinction isn't "online vs. offline" but "direct vs. mediated"
Articles and books on the impacts of digital and mobile media are a dime a dozen, and may be as laughable, or prophetic, as previous gerimiads on new media. "Has the Smartphone Destroyed a Generation" is fairly typical of the genre, if better than most. Reading it, a thought recurs to me: the distinction isn't of online vs. offline, but or even screen time, but of mediated vs. direct experience. Mediamediates. It is literally that which is between the observer and the observed. And with increasingly smart media, those exchanges are very directly mediated, interposed, by third (and fourth, and fifth, and ...) parties. This has multiple effects, a few:
Direct is present, mediated is (often) remote.
Direct is strongly causaul and deterministics, mediated is fuzzy, indistinct, and often capricious, failing in unanticipated, or inconsistent, ways.
Direct is filtered by location, mediated is filtered by selection -- your's or another's.
Direct is attentive, mediated is amplified.
I'd argue there are degrees of mediation as well. Analogue devices such as the telephone are less mediated than digital feeds such as Facebook or YouTube. And this isn't the first period to have such experiences. I have frequent cause to point out that intellectual, academic, and creative experiences were very often epistolary, exchanges of letters. Though generally with less rapidity than today's 'round-the-world-in-a-second emails. But that whole "online" and "cyberspace" distinction? Lose it.
The etymology of "data" ... peculiarly uninformative
I'm rather the fan of looking at etymologies of words. They often reveal interesting origins, connections, or evolutions. The etymology of data would be a peculiar exception:
1640s, classical plural of datum, from Latin datum "(thing) given," neuter past participle of dare "to give" (from PIE root *do- "to give"). Meaning "transmittable and storable computer information" first recorded 1946. Data processing is from 1954.
a collection of facts, observations, or other information related to a particular question or problem; as, the historical data show that the budget deficit is only a small factor in determining interest rates.
Which raises the question of whether data is the collection of facts, or the symbolic or other representation of those facts. Arising as discovered that there is a philosophy of data and I've encountered its philosopher, Brian Ballsun-Stanton (via Mastodon).
Amathia: Unteachably stupid
There are a few concepts on the harm or danger of stupidity. In "One Crucial Word", Massimo Pigliucci explores the Greek term Amathia:
Amathia. It is often translated as “ignorance,” as in the following two famous quotes from Socrates: “Wisdom alone, is the good for man, ignorance the only evil” (Euthydemus 281d) “There is, he said, only one good, that is, knowledge, and only one evil, that is, ignorance” (in Diogenes Laertius, II.31) But just as in the case of other ancient Greek words (like “eudaimonia,” about which I will write later this week) the common translation hardly does the job, and indeed often leads people to misunderstand the concept and quickly dismiss it as “obviously” false, or even incoherent....
Stupidity is a more dangerous enemy of the good than malice. One may protest against evil; it can be exposed and, if need be, prevented by use of force. Evil always carries within itself the germ of its own subversion in that it leaves behind in human beings at least a sense of unease. Against stupidity we are defenseless. Neither protests nor the use of force accomplish anything here; reasons fall on deaf ears; facts that contradict one’s prejudgment simply need not be believed- in such moments the stupid person even becomes critical – and when facts are irrefutable they are just pushed aside as inconsequential, as incidental. In all this the stupid person, in contrast to the malicious one, is utterly self-satisfied and, being easily irritated, becomes dangerous by going on the attack. For that reason, greater caution is called for than with a malicious one. Never again will we try to persuade the stupid person with reasons, for it is senseless and dangerous....
Read through to the source for the full quote. I've dug a bit deeper into the backstory. Dietrich Bonhoeffer was a contemporary and friend of Reinhold Neibur, of "Serenity Prayer" fame. He served in the Abwehr, the Nazi intelligence service, during WWII, headed by Wilhelm Canaris. Bonhoeffer and Caneris were executed by the Nazi regime on 9 April, 1945, only three weeks before the fall of Berlin and Hitler's own death. And it turns out that the Abwehr, centre of relatively unfiltered information during the regime, was an active centre of resistance to it, from within. Bonhoeffer was one of eight children. A brother, and the husbands of two of his sisters, were also executed by the Nazi regime. Bonhoeffer's twin sister Sabine survived until 1999. Strongly related to the previous item on amathia, and observations from Hanah Arendt.
The Edge Question, 2017
"What Scientific Term or Concept Ought to be More Widely Known?" I find The Edge to be a bit hit-or-miss, and there are some misses here. But there's a heck of a lot of hits on topics that have been floating through my brain-space, and a few names I've been following as well. David Christian ("Big History"), confirmation bias, motivated reasoning, networks, information pathology, ... Daily Nous has a promising list as well. I've got the essays lined up to ... hopefully, read. And this note as a reminder to do that.
There seems to be no little need that the whole doctrine of non-interference with foreign nations should be reconsidered, if it can be said to have as yet been considered as a really moral question at all... To go to war for an idea, if the war is aggressive, not defensive, is as criminal as to go to war for territory or revenue; for it is as little justifiable to force our ideas on other people, as to compel them to submit to our will in any other respect. But there assuredly are cases in which it is allowable to go to war, without having been ourselves attacked, or threatened with attack; and it is very important that nations should make up their minds in time, as to what these cases are... To suppose that the same international customs, and the same rules of international morality, can obtain between one civilized nation and another, and between civilized nations and barbarians, is a grave error...
Oil is other people's money
I was thinking through the history of the Indiana natural gas boom -- oh, yeah, what Indiana gas boom, you ask? ThisIndiana gas boom, lasting from about 1884 to 1903. Basically, people realised you could stick a pipe in the ground and burn what came out. Which people did. As free-standing, natural-wonder flambeaux -- flaming torches, visible for miles around. After all, such a God-given abundance would surely last forever, right? The field burned out, literally, in two decades. But why waste that resource? I'm thinking of a typical Analyst's Matrix, describing spending your own, vs. other people's money. Let's do that in a table:
Someone else's money
High quality / Low cost
High quality / Cost irrelevant
Somebody else's use
Quality irrelevant / Low cost
Quality irrelevant / Cost irrelevant
When it comes to natural gas, or oil, or coal, the majority of the cost, that is, its initial formation is not borne by you. Only the extraction cost is. That un-borne fraction is effectively other people's money. You care about the quality of the use (its use value), but not the full formation cost. Oil, coal, and gas, are other people's money. The legacy of the Indiana boom lives on in a few ways. Ball Glass Company originally formed in the state to take advantage of cheap gas for glass blowing, as did numerous other manufacturing concerns. They eventually shifted to coal. And you'll find the word flambeau turning up in place-names and the odd company name to. Relics to other people's money.
Limitations on Free Speech -- revisiting "shouting 'No Fire!' in a theatre that is in fact on fire"
The dynamics since the American Fascists riots in Charlottesville, VA, and the ACLU reconsidering its position on free speech reminds me that I had started, quite uncomfortably, revisiting my own views on this about three years ago. "Shouting "No Fire" in a Warming World as a Clear and Present Danger" was my thinking at the time. Further developments -- Charlie Hebdo attacks, "punching vs. punching down", questions over revisionist history, the amazingly good two-part YouTube set by Contrapoints: "Does the Left Hate Free Speech? (Part 1)" (video: 16:53) and "Does the Left Hate Free Speech? (Part 2)" (video: 17:46) (I'm surprised I hadn't already mentioned it), various research (Jill Gordon, "John Stuart Mill and 'The Marketplace of Ideas'" and Jill Lepore (Kansas City Public Library lecture) both address parts of this. Karl Popper's "Paradox of Tolerance". Many, many discussions, mostly on G+. The history of free expression / free speech itself is interesting and surprising, particularly the role between Protestant and Catholic factions -- the latter being seen much the same way as Fascists are today, as constitutionally opposed to tolerance, and therefore not subject to the benefits of free speech themselves.
Jeff Schmidt on salaried professionals and the soul-battering system that shapes their lives
This book explains the social agenda of the process of professional training. Disciplined Minds shows how it is used to promote orthodoxy by detecting and weeding out dissident candidates and by exerting pressure on the rest to obey their instructors and abandon personal agendas such as social reform -- so that they, in turn, can perpetuate the system by squeezing the life out of the next generation.
So no, Sonos! Palindromic boycott of privacy-skewering IoT ToS change
Wireless, cloud-connected speaker manufacturer Sonos have retroactively changed terms of serviceand required existing product ownersmonitoring subjects accept the new terms or the devices will cease to function. And this, boys and girls, is why you don't buy Sonos products, ever. (Or any Internet of Things that Spy On You devices.) Palindrome courtesey Sakari Maaranen.
Alexander Hamilton Church and cost accounting: Capital-Labour analysis
Alexander Hamilton Church (28 May 1866 – 11 February 1936) was an English efficiency engineer, accountant and writer on accountancy and management, known for his seminal work of management and cost accounting. In particular, it was his work which expanded the concept of factors of production from just labour to include capital and other inputs. Among his works, Production factors in cost accounting and works management (1910), from whose introduction:
From the earliest days of manufacturing there has grown up a custom of considering labor as the main and only direct item in production, and of expressing all other expenditure in more or less vague percentages of wage cost. The fact is, however, that labor, while always important, tends to become less important relatively to other items as the progress of organized manufacture develops and the use of specialized and expensive mechanical equipment increases. Very few concerns have come to grief by ignoring labor costs, but many have passed into the hands of receivers by ignoring the relative imiportance of the other factors of production.
On social media and online tools as "optional": Facebook required for AirBnB
Via The Guardian, "I didn’t have enough Facebook friends to prove to Airbnb I was real": At the other end of the Airbnb helpline in Colorado, “Casey” sounded incredulous. “You have how many Facebook friends?” she drawled. “Er … about 50,” I replied. Long pause. “Well, you don’t have enough for us to verify you. You’d need at least 100.” “But”, I squeaked, “I post every now and again … I’m on Facebook most days to check on my friends and relations.” This, however, was not enough to convince Airbnb I existed. And, as I didn’t exist, I could not book a room. Keep this in mind next time someone declares "nobody forces you to use Facebook". Despite the many other refutations of this trope, we can now respond unequivocally: "AirBnB do".
Milestones: the 900 club
Just to memorialise this, and to bury the item as I close out this thread: the Dreddit has crossed the 900 subscriber threshold for the first time. Thanks to all, again, I will strive to be worth your time. It's interesting how much I prefer not to note such things, and yet do in fact note them. The days of teetering just on the edge in particular.
Do you like what you're reading here? Would you like to see a broader discussion? Do you think there are ideas which should be shared more broadly? The Lair isn't a numbers game, my real goal is quality -- reaching, and hopefully interacting with, an intelligent online community. Something which I've found, in several decades of online interactions, difficult to achieve. But there's something which works surprisingly well: word of mouth. Shares, by others, to appropriate venues, have generated the best interactions. I do some of that, but I could use your help as well. So: if you see something that strikes you as particularly cogent (or, perhaps, insipid), please share it. To another subreddit. To Twitter or Facebook or G+. To the small-but-high-quality Metafilter. To your blogging circle, or a mailing list. If you work in technology, or policy, or economics, there as well. Thanks, Morbius.
Interesting Questions and Answers from Slack (shortened)
dr10 What can be done with Javark in the future? you can outline some short & interesting scenarios for me? boldninja In the future? More like now - you can build app that utilitizes Ark blockchain. How someone uses it is up to them - example : mobile gaming (payment method or using ARK tokens in-game to purchase from game shop), enterprise level stuff, verifications on blockchain, ... basically now its more in developers hands on how they want to implement and use it. fix developed easy to use Java lite client to work with ark blockchain so you just need to incorporate this in the app that you want blockchain used in. dafty a good example is that tipbot (written in Java) currently has to make an OS call to start up Python, run some Arky scripts, and then capture the output via a status code and returning JSON in order to check a balance, send a transaction, or whatever else it does. (edited) Javark means I can create transactions directly within tipbot within the same process, and no longer have to install Python or Arky on any of its nodes (edited) dr10 so basically not the ark developers create all this new scenarios, but they give the language and power to all who want to embed a cryptocurrency in whatever system they have? dafty exactly it provides another way of interacting within the Ark network dr10 and there is no other crypto that can do that? by now ark was the first as i read boldninja first DPoS blockchain ethereum or bitcoin also has Java libraries dr10 okay dafty Python and Java are probably the two most important, most IoT devices run one or the other boldninja the advantage that ark has is speed - who will wait 10 minutes for confirmation of bitcoin to I don't know unlock some file or door? dr10 exactly thats why i bought in xD speed is so important (.)\* Regarding Delegates and the Voting System. What could Delegates do bad or wrong that somebody unvotes them? And what doey need to be good at to get votes? i know its about forging coins, but isnt it just a program running? i dont know much about nodes yet. jarunik Install wrong fork.... Majority of delegates decides on the protocol of the network dr10 so if he does some bad coding/programming which does harm to the network? jarunik Lets say someone codes ark unlimited dr10 yes jarunik Delegate will decide for ark or ark unlimited Majority will win.... dr10 so its 51 delegates (like in a congress) who are voted by the ark users and these decide for the paths ark will go through... if its a fork or some new applications being embedded etc? jarunik Yes dr10 i get that. but i dont know why i should unvote somebody for example. i dont know any delegate personally jarunik To vote someone else dr10 yeah but why? why should i care? i dont know them jarunik If a decision comes up delegates will take sides dr10 i dont know what they stand for jarunik You will vote for one to represent you Currently not much conflict and politics yet dr10 for example i only know cryptolanka, because i watch his videos, but i dont know any other delegate. so i dont know what they have on their agenda. how can i get information about that? ok i see so later i will know them by twitter, youtube etc and know their opinions jarunik Delegate proposal in the forum dr10 have to check that out jarunik Has current positions. Mostly how to use profit for now dr10 can normal people make suggestions? Scenario: Ark Fee is 0.1 ARK. If Ark is worth 100$ it is 10$ Fee... People think its too much, they create a movement or something to change this.... or are only delegates able to bring in ideas? boldninja one of the features for future is dynamic fee structure so that will be possible :slightly_smiling_face: dr10 yeah lets pretend there would be no dynamic fee structure... just focussing on the aspect of making proposals which direction ark should shift could I make this proposal? or only one of the 51 delegates? boldninja you can make proposals :slightly_smiling_face: - there is a section on github for AIPs https://github.com/ArkEcosystem/AIPs GitHub ArkEcosystem/AIPs AIPs - :mortar_board: Ark Improvement Proposals dr10 thanks! :slightly_smiling_face: boldninja but yeah first step would be to reduce fee if dynamic fee structure wouldn't be implemented yet and if ark would be of such value no one would pay 10$ for fees anyway so it would need to be changed much prior to that dr10 In bitcoin, litecoin, etc. the biggest miners are those who decide, right? like mining companies etc boldninja yeah dafty I think dynamic fees should be looked at fairly early on, force it in an update before the delegates really get established boldninja I agree dafty should be introduced in this year imo dafty if Ark does take off, delegates will be unlikely to want to update if it means they'll get less fees only way out would be a hard fork, which would be fine long term boldninja dafty you'll update c'mon ? dr10 I dont know much about this political systems, but it feels to me, that there is a natural danger - like with politicians - that some people get too powerful and they campaign for themselves, but they devide totally different. is there a danger like this? or what kind of things prevent this? dr10 like if we have hillary clinton as one of the delegates or whoever xD dr10 you still need majority consensus so 1-2 bad actors won't change much when we talking about 20+ that would be something jarunik problem currently are all the self funded delegates :wink: dr10 why is this a problem? jarunik they don't need votes dr10 because they have the most coins? jarunik they have enough coin to sponsor a seat for themselves economics says they will act in their own intereste dafty they are heavily staked in the project, so it's likely they'll go way of general concencus. but, we haven't really seen a split in dpos so far to know what would happen jarunik but that might not be in the interest of smaller bag holders boldninja I have dafty 's address we can send someone to update if he won't comply :trollbounce: jarunik hehe :slightly_smiling_face: jarunik like for example the none forging delegates can't be unvoted i know it does not really hurt currently :slightly_smiling_face: dafty brb, need to start my 4 minute walking commute from work :ermygerd: :trollbounce: dr10 ok i see if there will be a whole new "proof of whatever" system, can people vote to go another route, with a fork or within this current fork? is this even possible? lets say there is "proof of artificial intelligence" XD like changing from a democracy into a technocracy or whatever jarunik if majority would vote for that then ark could switch yes dr10 ok jarunik delegate basically downloads the node code and runs it by doing so he chooses which code to run if majority chooses some code ... this codes rules are valid that's at least how I understood it dr10 if there is a delegate who runs a different code just because he wants to, people just unvote him and so he has no power anymore? boldninja if he runs different code he won't forge if he is active jarunik he can't make blocks valid boldninja he needs consensus enough delegates with same code dafty it can be seen with pow & bitcoin right now. 30% running unlimited nodes, 30% running segwit. fortunately, they have agreed to play nicely with bitcoin core until a fixed concencus is reached, in which case either version will start pumping out blocks that are invalid with the other version jarunik so one alone does not do any harm If we talk about nodes anyway how do you make sure to not muss forging like some do? do you know when your time for forging is? boldninja run ark node on dependable server dafty monitoring scripts, auto-failover boldninja sending dafty coins also helps to better forge dafty :this: ddos mitigation dr10 those who are no delegates can't stake their coins? as i understood only the delegates stake it? boldninja you "stake" it by voting for profit sharing pool / delegate anyone can "stake" dr10 yes thats what i read, but can I see where I stake how much? how much I earn? for example in the POSW online wallet, you see how much you stake every few minutes/hours its easy to read pivx hasnt that feature, i needed to ask the developers jarunik you "stake" all ark of a wallet with one vote but it is not really "staked" dr10 and how much do i earn? where can i see that? jarunik you earn nothing at all all goes to delegate delegate decides what to do with it the profit sharing once will pay out a part of it !calculate slackbot Custom Response https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1FGo3FkC3uSWXGHatPQyny2brMWjAIJsHFCR-Lhkl_m0/edit#gid=0 jarunik it is basically mutual agreement between you and the delegate you vote dependable server and failover .... is there a guide how to set it up? I guess I would need 2 VPS and some CRON job or something ... or how do you do it? dr10 so basically i could keep 1 ark in my wallet to vote and the rest on an exchange? i still voted and thats all i can do, right? sorry for these stupid questions, i just want to go through different scenarios jarunik then you only vote with 1 ark dr10 ok jarunik ark has to be in the wallet you vote with you only vote for one delegate with the entire ark of that wallet ark on exchange does not vote (as exchanges do not vote (currently)) dr10 ok, so if you have 5000 ark, i have 3000 and boldninja has 10.000 but only 1000 in his wallet and we all vote one person, that means 9000 ark will be staked for this one delegate? jarunik sorry ... dinner ... can help explain more I found out so far later if you want dr10 sure, np boldninja that is correct and biggest share would go to jarunik in this case dr10 you mean his vote weighs more than ours, right? boldninja more ark you have more voting power you have dr10 ok boldninja yes cause he is voting with 5k you with 3k and I with 1k dr10 but he doesnt earn, like people do with pivx or other coins i see boldninja nope delegate pays out according to his proposals and you choose which is best suit for you dr10 someone who wants to be a delegate needs to lock in more than the 51st delegate, right? can he unlock at any time and sell all his coins or is it locked for a certain amount of time dafty Note that DPoS doesn't actually involve pools. It's a delegate's decision to profit share or not and sort out payout. Ark has fewer delegates, so there's more incentive required to vote for a delegate (plus 1 ARK=1 Vote). Take a look at Lisk, same concept, but only 3(?) pools at 98 solo delegates. dr10 If i need to format my PC and reinstall ark wallet, how do I get back into my account? Do I need to save the adress too? or is the passphrase my account at the same time? when I click on import account it says to write in the passphrase, I dont need anythin else? dafty yeah it's a brain wallet passphrase produces your public address dr10 okay dafty so long as you have the passphrase, you can access the account from anywhere (edited) dr10 good Inside the wallet, what is the Register: Offchain good for? I can create folders there. What could I use this for? cannabanana have no idea boldninja you can better organize your account - but its local not on blockchain dr10 watch only adress... to see what the remaining ark on my bittrex account are doing? or what could it be used for boldninja adding any address you want to have look out for bittrex hot wallet, your friends account, ... dafty ex gf boldninja :joy: dafty she what shops she's spending your ark on jarunik Second passphrase. If you create one when do u enter which one? dr10 lol dafty I set one as soon as I make a test deposit test deposit > second passphrase > the amount I want to send jarunik I did not get it. Restoring wallet, sending ark When do u need which passphrase dafty when you send out or vote, it'll ask you for your first passphrase, then second jarunik Ah both dafty second passphrase is produced from first passphrase, I think can't remember jarunik So it is just a stonger key and nothing more? Or does it have other benefits? dafty it can be used for 2 key multisig, but for most cases it's just more security person A owns one passphrase, person B owns the second, neither can send out unless both provide their keys dr10 Smartbridge needs to be implemented into other blockchains via a small code right? How could you realize that? Just asking developers to change their code? How can you involve bigger currencies into ark ecosystem, why should they care? :slightly_smiling_face: 4 replies Last reply about 21 hours ago View thread jarunik You could do it through some smart contract in ethereum most likely new currencies forked from ark will somewhen have it integrated directly (once it is in Ark code) we will most likely test it with some sidechain or friendly smaller chain first somewhen dr10 how would you link together with NEM, Bitcoin, PIVX, Ripple? jarunik well then if it grows maybe some others get interested dr10 you will contact the developers and ask them? I am not in the core team :smile: dr10 :smile: jarunik you can join in developement of ark on github anyway dr10 okay jarunik i think you might even get bounties if you do it will be more developement of "community features" I guess but we will see on what we will vote and what idea everyone has whatever helps the ark ecosystem dr10 sure if a dev is here i will ask him again about linking to other blockchains thanks xD jarunik your welcome dr10 An ARK gaming platform release. Codename: A... (Q2-Q3 2017) what kind of gaming platform? like valve's steam? Live same streaming, personality broadcasting platform (Q3-Q4 2017) (youtube/twitch?) jarunik where did you get that from? dr10 whitepaper in this section: Apollo - P2P Card Network Q2-Q4 2017 it says if there is at least 10.000 BTC raised during ARK-TEC (it wasnt i think?)... so probably it will take longer time... but what are these things? jarunik i think the roadmap on ark.io is more updated .... dr10 steam, youtube, twitch? ok jarunik but not sure dr10 what is NFC? boldninja Near Field Communication https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Near_field_communication Wikipedia Near field communication Near-field communication (NFC) is a set of communication protocols that enable two electronic devices, one of which is usually a portable device such as a smartphone, to establish communication by bringing them within 4 cm (1.6 in) of each other. NFC devices are used in contactless payment systems, similar to those used in credit cards and electronic ticket smartcards and allow mobile payment to replace/supplement these systems. NFC is used for social networking, for sharing contacts, photos, videos Show more… (Not automatically expanded because 8531x5344 is too large to display inline.) dr10 like bluetooth for payment? boldninja yeah similiar remember that a lot of stuff in whitepaper was if we would reach higher funding goals than we did dr10 yeah i heard that boldninja so a lot of this use cases will be postponed we are focusing on core first dr10 the road map on ark.io is the most accurate roadmap now, right? the whitepaper is more like a very longtime vision boldninja we are not funded like some of those latest ICOs raising 10m+ dr10 i know boldninja yes most accurate on is on ark.io what we'll work on in the next 3-4 months dr10 ok dr10 InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) - you are CURRENTLY working on a decentralized dropbox, decentralized Twitch Streaming, decentralized Data Hosting? is that correct? and this is to be finished 2017 approx.? boldninja IPFS yes (which is kind of decentralized hosting) we are not working on Twitch that will require bigger funding at least not yet dr10 okay so for now only decentralized dropbox... comparable to the concept of storjcoin i guess i didnt know ark has such huge ambitions. it will be a hard way, but i like huge ambitions. as soon as the first important features are realized this project will boom ----- Today May 4th, 2017 ----- dr10 I have a question regarding Proof of Work / Bitcoin (I know its not what this forum is about). Maybe somebody can answer me. What happens when all coins are mined, why should miners continue their work to confirm transactions etc?! boldninja fees dr10 i have read it won't be enough to pay off the computer power? or fees needs to rise? boldninja they make quite a nice chunk on fees as it is dr10 okay well doesnt matter xD i guess my question-session will continue today which points of your roadmap (besides mainnet) are already done and where is the main focus (i see your roadmap @ ark.io, but i guess you dont work on all silmutanously)? boldninja Main focus is currently deployable testnets for startups we want to become hub for upcoming projects to start with Ark as base and build upon dr10 like these new ethereum projects, but just for ark? boldninja yeah, but they'll have more "in the own hands" not relaying on ARK network, but still able to communicate to it with SmartBridge if ETH fails all assets fail as they are bound on ETH single point of failure dr10 hm in which scenario could eth fail what couldnt happen to ark / ark startups? (edited) boldninja its hypothetical but if eth would present some kind of flaw in design all assets could be in danger ark startups will have their own blockchains with their own set of rules / delegates, ... dr10 if eth changes something to their system, all others need to adapt, but @ ark they dont need to adapt because they still can communicate? boldninja projects are running directly on ETH blockchain via smart contracts - Augur, Iconomi, TokenCard, ... so if something were to happen or some flaw was unravelled in ETH it could jeoparzide all this projects with Ark you start with codebase and build your own things around it or modify dr10 ok, i cant imagine what could go wrong to be honest. but i think i understand what you try to say boldninja well look at DAO and ETH split to ETC, ... whole crypto is still in experimental phase this is just the start like internet in the 90s dr10 yes so this: Making ARK clone-able with push button deployment and linked to ARK’s Main Chain via SmartBridge. and this: Deployment of testnet clones for start-ups. is the foundation of the ark ecosystem? and there is the main focus as for now boldninja yes currently in development and first to be presented to the public for test along with mobile wallets / wallet redisign - this is currently being worked on and partnership outside Ark as well, but I cannot get more into details on that dr10 sure and what is already done? Mainnet launch and what else? wallet boldninja Java , Python implementation which is huge if you are more into dev scene dr10 yeah i read into the possibilities of that yesterday boldninja more to come as well - we want Ark to be universally avail in most promising dev langauges so you could get in with language you are most comfy working in dr10 i want to make my videos in english first, but HQ and then I talk about it in german lets say I want to create an ingame shop for Skins. How would I proceed (for dummies / beginner developers). I connect to the github? stupid question xD but well there are no stupid ones boldninja if you'd want to utilize Ark for ingame shop you'd probably develop game in Java for mobile so you'd look over Javark and how you make calls to execute transcations, verify payments on blockchain, save data on blockchain, ...
Year 1990 - Three years after Rickrolling , Capcom releases the game CARRIER AIR WING for CPS1 systems. A classical side-shotter with a nice plot and pretty straight-forward to play. pew pew pew
Year 2015 - A Quarter Century after.. the G.O.A.T. contest start! You must beat your friends earning more score and show your feline reflexes at retrogames.
As someone could imagine, we need an emulator for play this game (maybe you are lucky enough to be the owner of the real machine.. but nah.. chances are 0,1%). So let's talk a bit of techie details. There are many emulators that would run nicely the game. These emulators needs a ROM file (An exact copy of the data stored in the original hardware cards inside the arcade machine). Of course, you will need a computer to run the emulator. In this point, We will tell you that your computer needs very few requirements for run the emulator, so don´t be afraid of your machine's specs. I'll recomend you to use this emulator: Kawaks Kawaks is a software designed for Microsoft Windows that would run seamlessly on a wide variety of environments, spanning across all operating system versions since XP. It's higly customizable, but pretty straightforward to get things run. There are others emulators, like Callus, but Kawaks would work better with your graphic card (whatever it be) and the screenshot feature is easier than Callus. We will need to take screenshots, with whatever emulator you use, because this is the way to post your score, right? This point will be discussed later. The second component, is the rom. This file contains the whole game. You don´t need to open or decompress this file, it's ok as is, so you only need to download to a folder on your computer.
You need to download the emulator and the rom. For emulator, go to winkawaks website. Under "downloads" option at the right column, you can download a zip package called WinKawaks.zip 1.63. For the contest, is enought to extract the executable file called winkawaks.exe to a folder. For rom, you must search using google or similar to a file called cawing.zip (1.4mb). Romnation is a website that offers rom files for direct download. NOTE: Downloading this type of files could be a Copyright Infringement and I am not responsible whatever damage you could do to your system if you download this type of file. If you are not sure what are you doing, please, do not try to complete this guide.
After downloading the Rom file put winkawaks.exe and rom file to a folder on your hard drive (we will need this folder ahead, so keep in mind this detail). This is a pretty straightforward process. ATTENTION: Keep the rom zip file as is, decompressing is not needed. After that, you must execute this: WinKawaks.exe This is a portable version of the emulator, so you will not need to install anything on your computer.
Ok, I feel your excitement, so double click!. The emulator will show you a message about auto-configure the optimal graphics options. After that, you are in the main screen with the SNK and CAPCOM logo. Let´s do a quick tweak, head your pointer to File Menu, and then: Configure Paths. We will see a bunch of paths, but we are looking specifically at two under labels: ROMS2 and SCREENSHOTS. Clicking on browser buttons will bring you an explorer and you will choose this: ROMS2: Find the directory where you uncompressed the whole thing on Second Step. SCREENSHOTS: Choose your directory where the snapshots will be saved for further use. THIS IS IMPORTANT Because the contest relies on your ability to post those screenshots. We have time restraints, lets play! DAMN!. Point on File Menu -> Load Game. A gorgeus windows open in your eyes with a great lists of fine game for mature adults, but dont feel too excited, we only have one, CARRIER AIR WING, remember?, so let´s do some filtering setting the bulleted options to: Only available and then: Refresh. Does you see the game title? Yes? C'MON Put your speakers to 200% volume and double click! YaY! CONTROLS SO FAR:
Arrows for stay alive with your aircraf.
A for shot small bullets.
S for use big'ole massive destruction weapons.
F3 for insert coin (Mmm, quick advice: You will NOT want to clog the "machine" with your bitcoins, because this will becomes a small issue as we explain later, but go ahead if you want, we don´t want to cut your teenager wings)
F1 to play!!!
I will not explain you how to play, it's self explanable after 20 seconds.. choose your plane and pew pew pew.. And thats all! Nice? yes!
Ok, After finish the setup and play the game, let's talk about the contest. This will run a whole week starting at XXX and finishing at XXX Every time you die, you will be asked for your initials, and you will see the top chart. In this moment, TAKE A SCREENSHOT WITH THIS KEYS: CTRL + P (Only for Kawaks). This will spawn a PNG file on the directory set on Third Step under the label SCREENSHOTS. This is your entry to the contest. You must send a link to the PNG file (by imgur i.e.) to me and I'll collect all. Win the player with highest score. Resume:
Duration : From 05/10/2015-00:01 To 05/17/2015-23:59
Prize: Highest score will win the right to wear a specially crafted flair priviledge (to be revealed very soon!) until the next comp! Winner will be anounced on 05/18/2015.
Additional Info: You can use whatever emulator of your choice, maybe you'd prefeer callus, or mame.. or play with a modded Xbox.. but I don´t know how to get screenshots on those ways. Additionally, we could accept any format that you are capable of snap the score chart. So set your smartphone ready, right? If you use CALLUS, take in mind that you need to lower your screen deep colour to 16 bits and you will be able to take a screenshot with Windows: PRNT SCREEN key.. Callus is easy, but this is a pain! What if the score chart hides after 2 or 3 seconds? Wait until the intro. The machine will show you the current chart. (Did you remember the alert about clogging the machine with coins? This is because the machine will not show the chart if coins inserted, so you must expend all the coins prior to see the chart again). Can I use my USB pad! well, some pads works, some not..you could try it under the Game menu, Redefine Keys.. and try it. NOTE TO CHEATTERS: Due to the nature of emulators is more than easy to make cheats in game, like spawn more lives, slow down the pace, etc.. So we strongly encourage our participants to not do any cheat. We don´t cheat! right?. Well, in this point I want to say that there are better systems to play due to keyboards, gamepads. We cannont warrant a perfect balance between contestants, so please, don´t take things too serious, NefariousOaf will win, isnt?. Oh, it's possible to "continue" the game using the 2nd player slot, but this will be considered as cheat!, so only one live! Using USB pads will not be considered cheat. Keys works flawlessly, but due to the wide spectrum of hardware available, maybe your keyboard will not work nice, so feel free to ask and I'll try to find a solution, alternative keys, etc.. CONCLUSION: At last! Feel absolutely free to ask me any details involving your set-up, mechanics, whatever.. Special Thanks to jpier for his help! he's a good man. UPDATE at 05/10/2015 Update First Step: Removing direct link download due to copyright concerns. Update Second Step with new details about ROM and Emulator and the way it works. Update Date Format to dd/mm/yyyy to mm/dd/yyyy on Post's dates. Pew pew pew..boom!
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"What is CIWO?" It is a database sub that contains sourced information on a variety of common topics about Chinese/China. Covers politics, military, history, myths, etc. See the Table of Contents to view the topics.
"Why is this downvoted?" Reddit's system changes the vote numbers in order to combat spam bots. If you see something suspicious, remember we can't verify who is voting and keep in mind what Reddits main demographic is. The best response is simply to participate. As you get to know this sub, you will know when something doesn't reflect the actual sub, regardless of the votes. This issue only has impact if we let it.
We can discuss the creation/linking of subs here. Want a Sino affiliated sub dedicated to a specific subject or theme? Want a sub with far less mod oversight and rules? We have subs available. Regular Sino users can gather a few dedicated supporters and make a request/discuss here. Check out Asians, Asiancouples and AsianAmericans
"What is the Sino Archive?" It is a news link archive on wordpress that is categorized by many China/Chinese related topics, much more specific and comprehensive than the flair links. Updates are usually done by edits, not new posts. The most recent news will always be on top, the date of the article is visible. Updates when there is a large amount of links on a particular topic to archive. It's use is the same as any other archive and depends on who is using it. Occasionally we will do some sort of themed thread that will be an opportunity to provide existing/potentially add new knowledge to the topic. Previous topics: dinosaurs, laser research, pirates
Stacy Herbert (born 12 March 1968) is an American-born television presenter and producer.. Born in Huntington, New York, she was an associate producer of Popetown, a satirical cartoon series set in a fictitious Vatican commissioned by the BBC who, on its completion decided not to broadcast it out of fear of offending Catholics. Herbert wrote in New Humanist in 2004: "But if comedy is catharsis If you visit the bitcoin wiki page on anonymity ], Fuelling this boom, global investment in the fintech industry has tripled since the 2008 banking crisis and currently stands at nearly $3 billion. When you initiate a new machine into the network, you download the current transaction record (a 6-gigabyte file) of the entire history of Bitcoin Core integration/staging tree. https://bitcoincore.org. What is Bitcoin? Bitcoin is an experimental digital currency that enables instant payments to anyone, anywhere in the world. Bitcoin uses peer-to-peer technology to operate with no central authority: managing transactions and issuing money are carried out collectively by the network. Bitcoin surpasses $18,000 for the first time @ 00:28. 8 December 2017 $14,277 Bitcoin price historically dropped to ~ $14,000, but later that day it reaches $16,250 15 December 2017 $17,900 Bitcoin price reached $17,900 22 December 2017 $13,800 Bitcoin price loses one third of its value in 24 hours, dropping below $14,000. 5 February 2018 $6,200 Indeed, the recent boom in Bitcoin has triggered numerous companies offering their own cybercurrencies, and the amount of such numbers that they can generate is limited only by the ability of
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